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biology sba

By ancelthomas Nov 18, 2013 4159 Words
Biology
Project

Ancel Thomas
10a

Introduction
A disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of an organism. It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. This project seeks to explain:
types of disease
causes of named disease
treatment and control
vectors
stds
substance abuse
With and in all the information presented a sense of awareness is influenced. Preventative measures are shown also, because most if not all diseases shown could have been prevented.

Content
Title Page Types of diseases….. 4 Diseases and groups….. 6 Vectors….. 16 STDs….. 22 Social and economic implication of STDs..... 36 Role of blood in defending the body against diseases….. 38 Principle of immunization….. 40 Abuse and Physiological Effects….. 41 Substance abuse….. 47 Social economic effects of disease in plants and animals….. 49 Bibliography….. 51

Types of Diseases
There are several types of diseases existing in the world four of which are : Physiological disease
A physiological disease is a disease caused when the normal working of the body system is affected. This could be as a result of malfunctioning body organs or body cellular structures changing over a period of time causing illness. Examples of physiological diseases are: 1) Asthma. 2) Glaucoma.

Hereditary diseases
This is a disease or disorder that is inherited genetically. Examples of hereditary disease consists of sickle cell anemia, cancer of the breast, as well as diabetes and hypertension can also be in that category.

Deficiency diseases
Diseases that are caused by the lack of some particular nutrient in a person's diet are called deficiency diseases. Example are Beri-beri and Scurvy

Pathogenic diseases
A pathogenic disease is referred to as a disease brought about by organisms in humans. This disease can be caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites or prions among others all which bring about different conditions.

Examples of diseases caused by pathogenic viruses are smallpox, influenza, mumps, measles, chickenpox and rubella.

Disease and Groups
Hypertension
Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, is a condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure. Every time the human heart beats, it pumps blood to the whole body through the arteries. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing up against the blood vessel walls. The higher the pressure the harder the heart has to pump. Hypertension can lead to damaged organs, as well as several illnesses, such as renal failure (kidney failure), aneurysm, heart failure, stroke, or heart attack. Type: Hypertension is a physiological diseases.

Causes: Though the exact causes of hypertension are usually unknown, there are several factors that have been highly associated with the condition. These include: Smoking
Obesity or being overweight
Diabetes
Lack of physical activity
High levels of salt intake (sodium sensitivity)
Symptoms: There is no guarantee that a person with hypertension will present any symptoms of the condition. About 33% of people actually do not know that they have high blood pressure, and this ignorance can last for years. For this reason, it is advisable to undergo periodic blood pressure screenings even when no symptoms are present.  Extremely high blood pressure may lead to some symptoms, however, and these include: Severe headaches

Fatigue or confusion
Dizziness
Nausea
Problems with vision
Chest pains
Methods of treatment and control: The main goal of treatment for hypertension is to lower blood pressure to less than 140/90 - or even lower in some groups such as people with diabetes, and people with chronic kidney diseases. High blood pressure may be treated medically, by changing lifestyle factors, or a combination of the two. Important lifestyle changes include losing weight, quitting smoking, eating a healthful diet, reducing sodium intake, exercising regularly, and limiting alcohol consumption. 

Diabetes
Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Type: diabetes is a physiological disease. Can be considered as hereditary. Causes: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. It's believed that a combination of genetic predisposition and additional (as yet unidentified) factors provoke the immune system into attacking and killing the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by insulin resistance. This means no matter how much or how little insulin is made, the body can't use it as well as it should. As a result, glucose can't be moved from the blood into cells. Over time, the excess sugar in the blood gradually poisons the pancreas causing it to make less insulin and making it even more difficult to keep blood glucose under control. Obesity is a leading cause of insulin resistance – at least 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Genetic factors are also likely to be involved in the cause of type 2 diabetes. A family history of the disease has been shown to increase the chances of getting it. Other risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes include: being 40 years of age or older

blood vessel disease (e.g., damage to blood vessels in the eyes, nerves, kidneys, heart, brain, or arms and legs) First Nation, Hispanic, South Asian, Asian, or African descent giving birth to a large baby

high blood pressure
high cholesterol
a history of gestational diabetes
mental health disorders (e.g., bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia) polycystic ovary syndrome
prediabetes or impaired fasting glucose
use of certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids such as prednisone, certain antipsychotic medications, certain antiviral medications for HIV)

Symptoms: People with type 1 diabetes who are not being treated urinate frequently and feel excessively thirsty. They usually feel very tired and experience severe weight loss despite normal or excessive food intake. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually appear more gradually. People with type 2 diabetes who do not have their blood glucose under control often have a persistent, mild thirst. They urinate frequently, and often feel mild fatigue and complain of blurred vision. Many women with the disease have recurring vaginal yeast infections. Methods of control and treatment: All types of diabetes are treatable. Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime, however, some people have managed, through a lot of exercise, diet and excellent body weight control to get rid of their symptoms without medication.

Sickle cell Anaemia
An abnormal, crescent-shaped red blood cell that results from a single change in the amino acid sequence of the cell's hemoglobin, which causes the cell to contort, especially under low-oxygen conditions. Type: sickle cell anaemia is a hereditary disease.

Causes: As a parent, you undoubtedly want to know what may have caused your child’s sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder, passed from parent to child through a defective hemoglobin S gene (HbS). Symptoms: The most common symptom of anaemia is fatigue (feeling tired or weak). Other signs and symptoms of anaemia include: Shortness of breath

Dizziness
Headaches
Coldness in the hands and feet
Paler than normal skin or mucous membranes (the tissue that lines your nose, mouth, and other organs and body cavities) Jaundice (a yellowish colour of the skin or whites of the eyes) Methods of control and treatment: Bone marrow transplant offers the only potential cure for sickle cell anaemia. But, finding a donor is difficult and the procedure has serious risks associated with it, including death. As a result, treatment for sickle cell anaemia is usually aimed at avoiding crises, relieving symptoms and preventing complicationsTreatments may include medications to reduce pain and prevent complications, blood transfusions and supplemental oxygen, as well as bone marrow transplant.

Beri-beri
Beriberi is a disease brought on by a Vitamin B-1 (thiamine) deficiency. There are two types of the disease: wet beriberi and dry beriberi. Wet beriberi can effect heart function and, in the most extreme cases, heart failure. Dry beriberi damages the nerves and can lead to a loss of muscle strength and, eventually, muscle paralysis. If left unchecked and untreated, beriberi will cause death. Causes: Beriberi is caused by a lack of thiamine in the body. This lack of thiamine can be due to a lack of thiamine intake into the body or to an inability of the body to use the thiamine.  Common symptoms of dry beriberi

You may experience symptoms of dry beriberi daily or just once in a while. At times any of these symptoms can be severe: Loss of muscle coordination
Neurological problems, such as memory loss, confusion, and encephalitis Paralysis
Vomiting
Common symptoms of wet beriberi
You may experience symptoms of wet beriberi daily or just once in a while. At times any of these symptoms can be severe: Fatigue
Increased heart rate
Leg pain and swelling
Shortness of breath

Methods of treatment: The goals of pharmacotherapy are to correct the vitamin deficiency, reduce morbidity, and prevent complications. Suspected cases of thiamine deficiency are treated with prompt administration of parenteral thiamine; therapy continues until all symptoms of the deficiency have disappeared. Even at high concentrations, thiamine is not toxic in a person with normal renal function. Most outpatient care is targeted at delivering thiamine in a bioavailable form to rehabilitated patients.

Vectors
 A vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. Species of mosquito, for example, serve as vectors for the deadly disease Malaria. Mosquito (vector)

Mosquitoes are important vectors (agents) in the transmission of animal diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases involve the transmission of viruses and parasites from animal-to-animal, animal-to-person, or person-to-person, without afflicting the insect vectors with symptoms of disease. Action in mosquitoes

When a mosquito bites, she also injects saliva and anti-coagulants into the blood which may also contain disease-causing viruses or other parasites. This cycle can be interrupted by killing the mosquitoes, isolating infected people from all mosquitoes while they are infectious or vaccinating the exposed population. All three techniques have been used, often in combination, to control mosquito transmitted diseases. 

All mosquitoes have one common requirement--they need water to complete their life cycle. Some mosquitoes lay individual eggs on the sides of tree holes or discarded containers, or in depressions in the ground that will hold water. The eggs can lay dormant for several years. Some eggs will hatch when they are flooded by rainfall. Several flooding and drying cycles are usually required for all of the eggs to hatch that are laid by a particular female mosquito. Other mosquitoes lay eggs directly on the surface of water. The eggs are attached to one another to form a raft or the individual eggs float on the water. These eggs hatch in 24-48 hours releasing larvae that are commonly called "wrigglers" because you can often see the larvae wriggling up and down from the surface of the water. Generally, the larvae feed on microorganisms and organic material in the water, but some mosquitoes prey on the larvae of other mosquito species and are regarded to be beneficial. In about 7-10 days after eggs hatch, larvae change to the pupal or "tumbler" stage in preparation for adult life. Female mosquitoes begin searching for an animal to feed on several days after emerging from water. Male mosquitoes mate with females one to two days after the females emerge. Males do not bite, but they do feed on plant juices. 

 

MOSQUITO BREEDING SITES
Since mosquitoes need water to complete their life cycle, the source of a mosquito problem can be just about anywhere that water can collect. Farm ponds and lakes are typically not major mosquito breeding areas if they contain fish and are free of weeds, algae or floating debris in which mosquito larvae can hide. Municipal and farm animal waste lagoons may become breeding sites. Permanent natural bodies of water, such as swamps, usually contain a wide variety of predatory insects and fish that keep mosquitoes from reaching severe nuisance levels, although storms, such as hurricanes, may disrupt this system and allow mosquito populations to rise rapidly. In residential areas, human activities often create mosquito breeding sites or increase the production of mosquitoes in natural bodies of water. For example, road building and maintenance often impede the drainage of runoff from rainfall, creating a mosquito breeding site. Clogged drainage ditches along roads can become productive mosquito breeding sites. Logging and construction activities often leave tire ruts in the soil. These depressions are ideal breeding sites for "floodwater" mosquito species. Around the home, natural tree holes and man-made objects such as bird baths, boats, canoes, discarded tires, and plant pots collect rainwater and allow mosquitoes to breed literally right in our own backyard. Stagnant water in unused or poorly-maintained swimming pools becomes an ideal breeding site. This can be a particular problem on homes that are vacant (e.g., foreclosures). You can help reduce mosquito populations by eliminating or properly maintaining these problem spots: ."Tip and Toss" - empty or (preferably) discard containers, old tires, etc. that can hold stagnating water. .Keep out debris and mosquitoes. Keep the screens clear of debris as well. .Dump excess water from saucers under outdoor flower pots.

Cover or drain unused swimming pools.
Keep rain gutters free of leaves and other debris that prevent water from draining. Correct drainage problems in your yard that allow rainwater to pool in low lying areas.

Social and economic implications of STDs
Social
While some perceptions of STDs can evolve over time, there generally remains a lot of negative social implications of STDs. Many people tend to assume that someone with an STD must be promiscuous or reckless about sexual hygiene. In some cultures, excessive blame is given to women, homosexuals, or other demographic groups.

Economic
Most STDS or some rather are visible to the naked. Sometimes these visible infections cause discrimination. If a host of persons end up with and STD it can lead to a lost of job’s I can also leading to a break down in moves. The country of a person suffering from STD suffers greatly because greater emphasis is placed on recovery methods and treatments.

Role of blood in defending the body against diseases
The skin is the body's first line of defence. It acts as a physical barrier. When there are breaks in this barrier, such as cuts or sores, the body reacts to produce blood clots and a mesh work of fibrous tissue. The opening is thus blocked, which prevents germs that can cause disease, from entering the body. One important defensive mechanism involving blood is clotting. Sometimes these invaders breach this first line of defence and enter the body. Some white blood cells called phagocytes, move out of the blood and to the infected areas. There they surround the invading micro-organisms, killing and removing them from the body before they can cause disease. This is our second line of defence. The phagocytes can cope with any small, non-specific invasion by pathogens. If more dangerous, specific pathogens enter, then an immune response is activated. Another kind of white blood cell called lymphocytes that makes antibodies to attack, disarm, destroy and remove these foreign bodies. Anybody that is foreign or different and causes antibody formation is called an antigen. This is our third line of defence. When antigens such the measles virus, enter the body, lymphocytes recognize them and start to produce specific antibodies on a large scale to destroy the viruses. The immune response is very specific- only antibodies for that particular antigen are made.

Principle of immunization
When you catch a disease your body makes antibodies to kill the pathogens that are what is actually passed from one person to another. Immunisation is a way of giving your body some immunity by giving it some previously killed pathogens so that they cannot harm you but your body can make antibodies that protect you from the real thing.  This is not the only way it can be done but it is the most common mechanism, much simplified.

Abuse and Physiological Effects
Alcohol
Alcohol (when used commonly refers to ethanol) is consumed widely around the world for numerous reasons. Its properties have been both praised and demonized. In humans it generally acts as a depressant with, conversely, mild stimulating effects of some parts of the brain. At low levels of consumption alcohol has minimal effects on a person; at higher levels it leads to disorientation, coma, and death. Most alcohol that is consumed is removed from the body via the liver, which breaks alcohol down before removal. However, alcohol can readily cross any cell membrane. Ethanol is widely used as a solvent and disinfectant. It is used as a solvent because it breaks down many proteins and other molecules, such as lipids, which form the main structure of cell walls. It is used as a disinfectant for the same reasons — it breaks down bacteria and many viruses. When consumed, alcohol has similar effects on cells in the body. It can break down the lipids and proteins that form the walls of cells. Body tissue left in alcohol will dissolve over time (this is one reason why alcohol is sometimes used as a marinade or tenderizer for meat). Most of the time, the concentration of alcohol in the body is too low to do much, if any, damage to cells; however, over time as alcohol continues to be consumed it can have lasting effects on the body. This is one of the effects that leads to sclerosis of the liver; eventually the toxicity and solvent effects of alcohol are too much for the liver.

Cocaine
Cocaine produces its powerful high by acting on the brain. But as cocaine travels through the blood, it affects the whole body. Cocaine is responsible for more U.S. emergency room visits than any other illegal drug. Cocaine harms the brain, heart, blood vessels, and lungs -- and can even cause sudden death. Here's what happens in the body: Heart. Cocaine is bad for the heart. Cocaine increases heart rate and blood pressure while constricting the arteries supplying blood to the heart. The result can be a heart attack, even in young people without heart disease. Cocaine can also trigger a deadly abnormal heart rhythm called arrhythmia. Brain. Cocaine can constrict blood vessels in the brain, causing strokes. This can happen even in young people without other risk factors for strokes. Cocaine causes seizures and can lead to bizarre or violent behavior. Lungs and respiratory system. Snorting cocaine damages the nose and sinuses. Regular use can cause nasal perforation. Smoking crack cocaine irritates the lungs and, in some people, causes permanent lung damage. Gastrointestinal tract. Cocaine constricts blood vessels supplying the gut. The resulting oxygen starvation can cause ulcers, or even perforation of the stomach or intestines. Kidneys. Cocaine can cause sudden, overwhelming kidney failure through a process called rhabdomyolysis. In people with high blood pressure, regular cocaine use can accelerate the long-term kidney damage caused by high blood pressure. Sexual function. Although cocaine has a reputation as an aphrodisiac, it actually may make you less able to finish what you start. Chronic cocaine use can impair sexual function in men and women. In men, cocaine can cause delayed or impaired ejaculation.

Caffeine
Caffeine is a common substance found in many different foods and drinks, including coffee tea, energy drinks, soft drinks and chocolate. Caffeine is a stimulant and as such has direct effects on the central nervous system, including increasing heart rate and blood pressure which can speed up metabolism. In many cases, caffeine has negative side effects such as agitation, anxiousness and sleep disturbance. Many supplements and weight loss plans include caffeine. Nervous System Effects

Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system by increasing heart rate and blood pressure. Caffeine works as an antagonist to adenosine, a nucleoside consisting of a sugar and the amino acid adenine, which causes dilation of blood vessels. It blocks the effects of adenosine, causing constriction of the blood vessels and therefore increasing blood pressure. As heart rate speeds up, the pressure inside the arteries increases as well. Oxygen transport to the muscles increases with heart rate, causing an increase in metabolic activity and thus an increased metabolism. People with pulmonary or heart disorders can be especially sensitive to the effects of caffeine and should consult their physician prior to consumption in any form.

Negative Effects
Increased heart rate can be a benefit of caffeine when used as a supplement to exercise, but people without previous knowledge of the actions of a stimulant may be surprised and may even feel palpitations from caffeine use. Increased blood pressure is usually a negative thing, especially in individuals with history of high blood pressure. Anxiety, agitation and sleeplessness can also happen as a result of caffeine consumption. Without sleep the body becomes less efficient at repairing itself and may cause drowsiness in the morning, thus leading to increased caffeine intake, perpetuating the cycle. According to a recent study in "Stoke: Journal of the American Heart Association," caffeine consumption was the leading trigger causing rupture of a brain aneurysm, leading to stroke.

Substance abuse
Substance abuse can simply be defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes. Medline's medical encyclopedia defines drug abuse as "the use of illicit drugs or the abuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are indicated or in a manner or in quantities other than directed." But the broad range of substance abuse in today's society is not that simple.There are substances that can be abused for their mood-altering effects that are not drugs at all -- inhalants and solvents -- and there are drugs that can be abused that have no mood-altering or intoxication properties, such as anabolic steroids.

Social Effects
The social effects of drug abuse begin with abusers and their families. Substance abuse has been a factor in divorce, family violence and related problems. The social effects extend into the larger society, as well, such as through crimes committed by drug abusers to get money needed to feed drug habits. Further, the lucrative nature of drug trafficking fuels crime as rival drug gangs fight for control of the traffic. The U.S. government, for example, noted increased drug-related violence on the U.S.-Mexico border and cited drug gangs in these areas as the nation's leading organized crime threat. Economic Effects

Reports by UNDCP have pointed out that the economic effects of drug abuse can be measured in two forms. One is the cost of government drug enforcement policies. Nations around the world spend billions yearly on law enforcement and other efforts aimed at drug interdiction. Because a central principle in economics is that resources are scarce and require decisions about how to allocate them, it follows that money spent on drug enforcement is money not spent on education, public infrastructure, or given to the public in the form of lower taxes. Another economic effect from drug abuse is the lost human productivity, such as lost wages and decreased production that results from illnesses and premature deaths related to drug abuse.

Social economic effects of disease in plants and animals There are a range of social and economic implications of disease in plants and animals. Some of the main ones are outlined in the points below. Usually, the extent of these problems will depend upon how severe and widespread the disease is. It can also be dependent upon how important the animals or plants are to humans, or where they are positioned in the natural food chain.

Effects on crop farmers
If a disease affects the crops of a farmer, the farmer will naturally lose out in terms of income. If the disease wipes out the whole crop, he could be facing a year of poverty. Plant diseases can make the income generated by a farmer highly versatile, which is a negative point particularly considering the profession is a difficult one anyway. Economically, in an agricultural area incomes could drop and shops and businesses could face lower profits.

Food shortages
Diseases in both plants and animals could cause food shortages; smaller quantities of meats and edible crops will be produced. This has a significant economic impact, as the drop in supply leads to a rise in the price of food. Some families may therefore be unable to afford basic items, particularly in poorer countries. This could lead to starvation and malnutrition. Health effects

In a minority of cases, animal diseases have been known to adapt to effect humans. For instance, this phenomenon has been seen in the recent outbreak of swine flu, and the foot and mouth disease in cattle a few years ago. Potentially, these diseases could turn out to be both dangerous and contagious, and could even lead to a pandemic crisis. Many people could lose their lives or be affected by the outbreak.

Bibliography

Alberto, Zuriel. “syphilis”http://en.wikipedia.org. August 1, 2013 Phillips , Andrea. “What is an STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease)?” http://www.news-medical.net. September 3, 2012
Chinnery , Louis. CX C Biology .United Kingdom : Cambridge,Jones Geof, 1984

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