Preview

Biology: Key Questions

Good Essays
Open Document
Open Document
665 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
Biology: Key Questions
Biology Key Questions – Lesson #1

1. How many electrons does Mg2+ have?

Answer: Mg2+ has 10 electrons. A Magnesium atom has 12 electrons, 2 of which are valence electrons. The atom will lose the 2 outermost electrons in order to stabilize its electron shell. The nucleus maintains its 12 protons and becomes a Mg2+ ion.

2. Given that the half-life of the radioisotope carbon-14 is 5730 years, how useful do you think this isotope would be for dating bones that are over a million years old?

Answer:

Carbon-14 is incorporated in the tissues of plants and animals through their environment. When they die the incorporation of carbon-14 ends, and what remains in the specimen decays at a constant rate, with a half-life of 5730 years. That is, after 5730 years only half of Carbon-14 remains in the sample. (Measuring the ratio between C-14 & C-12 can give us a good idea about when an organism died.) This exponential decay continues and continues; however after about 40 000 years, less than 1% of Carbon-14 remains in the sample, so it is not useful for dating material much older than that.
Thus, given the half-life of the radioisotope Carbon-14, it would not be useful in dating a bone over a million years old.

3. Summarize the four major types of biochemical reactions studied in this lesson. For each type give its name, a word summary of what happens during the reaction, and an example of where the reaction might be biologically important.

Answer:

Hydrolysis:
Hydrolysis uses water (and various enzymes) to break down molecules into smaller, simpler molecules. This occurs by breaking a bond on the reactant and adding a hydrogen atom to one part, and a hydroxyl (-OH) to the other. The result is 2 simpler molecules.

Macromolecule + Water  molecule + molecule

This process aids us in controlling blood sugar, by the hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose.

Glycogen + Water + (Enzymes)  Glucose + Glucose

Condensation:

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    5. How can human bones give forensic scientists can indication of age? Describe some of the aspects that would give this information.…

    • 543 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Pre Calc Checkup 4

    • 732 Words
    • 5 Pages

    7. An archeologist finds an artifact that contains 44% of the carbon-14 that it would have…

    • 732 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Hassan's Story

    • 640 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Hassan and his team are able to determine the approximate ages of the skeletal remains by looking for a couple of key skeletal changes. The amount fusing of the sacrum and coccyx on the woman’s skeleton would give Hassan and his team a good indication of the woman’s age when she passed away. Hassan and his team would also be able to determine the age of the baby by the amount of ossification on the skull. The amount of ossification in the fontanels would help to determine the age of the baby when it passed away.…

    • 640 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Hassan Story

    • 690 Words
    • 3 Pages

    D. How would Hassan and his team be able to tell the age of the skeletal remains of the woman and the baby? One way of being able to determine age of the remains would be being able to determine if the sacral and coccygeal regions are fused. Determining at what stage fusing is would enable them to discern what an approximate age is. The other area of vertebra that can be examined is the nucleus pulposus. As one ages this area of the vertebra hardens.…

    • 690 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Death and Bones

    • 331 Words
    • 1 Page

    How can human bones give forensic scientists can indication of age? Describe some of the aspects that would give this information.…

    • 331 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    5. How can human bones give forensic scientists an indication of age? Describe some of the aspects that would give this information.…

    • 776 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    3. Explain which would be the best isotope from the Isotope Half-Life Chart to measure a 3 billion year old specimen.Rubidium isotope would be the best isotope to use for that measurement because it contains the most years that would be needed to measure that span. Even with the help of this isotope the task would still be rather difficult to make precise.…

    • 555 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    References: L. Vardiman, A.A. Snelling and E.F. Chaffin (Eds.), Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth: Results of a Young-Earth Creationist Research Initiative, Institute for Creation Research, Santee, California, and Creation Research Society, St. Joseph, Missouri, 2000.…

    • 746 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    6.05 Forensic Science

    • 521 Words
    • 2 Pages

    5. How can human bones give forensic scientists can indication of age? Describe some of the aspects that would give this information. Forensic scientists use the length of the bones and they condition of the teeth to determine the age. For example, in adults they look at wear on the teeth and joints, like arthritis.…

    • 521 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Death and Herculaneum

    • 1073 Words
    • 4 Pages

    How can human bones give forensic scientists can indication of age? Describe some of the aspects that would give this information.…

    • 1073 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    After a week, the lab report came back with shocking information about the human like bones. The DNA results showed the bones were from a woman, about 35-years of age, and in excellent health. Moreover, not all the DNA was human; there was a 20-percent unknown factor. Nevertheless, report concluded she lived around 100,000 years ago. In addition, the holograph drawing of the skull showed she European looks and would fit into today’s environment. Besides, there were unknown fibers embedded with the fragile…

    • 903 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Age Estimation Theory

    • 1748 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Often upon the discovery of skeletal remains, one of the most important steps in producing a biological profile of the deceased is to estimate a probable age-at-death range, the sex, ethnicity and stature of the individual (Franklin 2010). There are many different methods of doing this, depending on whether the skeleton is juvenile or adult.…

    • 1748 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Radiometric dating is the process of estimating the age of rocks from the decay of radioactive elements inside the rock specimen. This process utilizes radioactive isotopes to date igneous rocks. These radioactive isotopes have a distinctive number of atoms that present themselves unstable.…

    • 488 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Carbon Dating

    • 929 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Carbon dating is the most reliable, commonly used, and useful dating method, for what it can date. It is used to date late Pleistocene and Holocene artifacts and geologic events up to 50,000 years decayed. Carbon dating has been very beneficial to the scientific world, because it is used in so many different fields of science, including archaeology, geology, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, and paleoclimatology. The radiocarbon dating method was developed by Willard F. Libby and a team of scientists at the University of Chicago, in the 1940’s. In 1960 Willard F. Libby received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their scientific achievements and his leadership. The way the method works has to do with Carbon-14 (or Carbon-14), and the amount that is left after a certain amount of decay in a nonliving organism.…

    • 929 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Radio Isotopic Dating

    • 603 Words
    • 2 Pages

    One type of radio isotopic dating is recognized as carbon dating. The radioactive decay of carbon-14 is used in carbon dating. Carbon-14 atoms are equally distributed over Earth 's biosphere. These atoms are combined with carbon-12 and carbon-13. Organisms contain the same ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 and carbon-13 because organisms are always taking in carbon. When the plants intake carbon dioxide, they are using these various carbon isotopes. When a plant is eaten by an animal, the carbon-14 atoms are then transferred to the animal. Once the organism dies, the carbon-14 continues to decay. Encountering beta decay, the carbon-14 forms nitrogen-14. In order to estimate the age of an object, the ratio that is present during the sampling is compared to the almost steady ratio present in the atmosphere. This kind of dating works best with objects that aren 't too old.…

    • 603 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays