YEAR 11 BIOLOGY EEI
ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY- ENZYMES
ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY- ENZYMES
THE ENZYME IS MIGHTIER THAN THE SWORD
Effects of Temperature on Amylase Activity
The aim of this EEI was to test the effects of temperature on the activity of the enzyme Amylase. Solutions of starch and amylase were held at selected temperatures by various methods of temperature control. Once the solutions reached and maintained the desired temperature they were combined. Samples at timed intervals were then taken and reacted with a reagent to determine the effect the selected temperatures had on the reaction rate of enzyme and substrate. Results indicated that the enzyme functions efficiently at its optimum temperature (50oC) digesting the starch present and that any sign of enzyme function at 70oC is completely nonexistent. In summary the experiments conducted in the EEI succeeded in demonstrating the effects temperature has enzyme activity and just how vital enzymes are for biological life.
Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions in all living things, and allow them to occur more effortlessly, without them we would not be alive. “Catalyst” denotes a substance that has the ability to increase the rate of a chemical reaction, and is not changed or destroyed by the chemical reaction that it accelerates (MicroTak, 2002). The enzyme Amylase speeds up the breakdown of starch into simple sugar; this reaction happens in the mouth and is the start of chemical digestion. Starch cannot pass through the lining of the intestine; it is too big (REFER TO FIGURE-31). The enzyme in question here is called Amylase; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of the polysaccharide starch (amylose) to the disaccharide maltose (Miller, 1992 ). It is readily abundant in saliva, but somewhat unpleasant to obtain in large quantities not to mention
Bibliography: Brian Bothner, R. C. J. W. C. S. Q. P. A. S., 2000. Monitoring Enzyme Catalysis with Mass Spectrometry. [Online] Available at: http://masspec.scripps.edu/publications/public_pdf/65_art.pdf Carolina, U. o. N., 1996. The Arrhenius Equation. [Online] Available at: http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/kin/arrhenius.html David W. Ball, J. W. H. R. J. S., 2011. Enzyme Action . In: The Basics of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry . s.l.:s.n., p. 692. Guide, B., 2012. HBIO1 > Enzymes. [Online] Available at: http://www.biologyguide.net/unit1/2_enzymes.htm MicroTak, 2002. How Do enzymes Function?. [Online] Available at: http://www.microtack.com/html/enzyme1.htm Miller, S. B., 1992 . Simple Enzyme Experiments. [Online] Available at: http://www.ableweb.org/volumes/vol-6/10-miller.pdf Princeton, 2010. Activation Energy. [Online] Available at: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Activation_energy.html R.Helms, D., Kosinski, R. J. & Cummings., J. C., 1998. Biology in the Laboratory, Third Edition. s.l.:Clemson University . Sullivan, S. M., June 3, 2008. Enzymes active sites must operate by an induced fit mechanism instead of conformational selection. [Online] Available at: http://www.pnas.org/content/105/37/13829 Wiki, 2013. Active Site. [Online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_site#cite_note-Sullivan2008-4 Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2013. Introduction to Enzymes. [Online] Available at: http://www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/factors.html