First of all, we would like to express our deepest appreciation to our Biology Semester2 lecturer and supervisor who provided us the possibility to complete this proposal. A special gratitude we would like to give to Mr. Shawn K. Nithianantham, whose provided us a lot of valuable advice and suggestions, and helped us to coordinate our project proposal. We would also like to express our gratitude towards him for showing us useful examples that related to this proposal that make us able to work efficiently, his willingness to motivate us and share his valuable time to discuss with us have contributed tremendously to our project proposal.
Thanks to the authority of AIMST University for providing us a peaceful and beautiful environment, with excellent facilities and high speed WIFI to make us able to complete this project in time. To complete our project proposal, we had to use the WIFI connection in cafeteria and also AIMST library to do research related to the project proposal.
Furthermore, thanks to our group members, who contributed their valuable time and money, showed their initiative to complete this project by doing their part in this project. Thank you to the group members, deeply from heart. Your cooperation and willingness to attend meetings and discussion, which made this project work done perfectly is very appreciated. Thanks to: 1. Mogesh Pravin
2. Yap Yi Hao
3. Chen Jun Sen
4. Leong Lai Ling
5. Chuan Yun Ning
6. Tan Ann Joe
7. Teh Ching Wei
Last but not least, we place a deep sense to gratitude to our family members and friends who provided us constant source of inspiration and help in terms of money and help during the entire time of the preparation of this project proposal. Thank you.
Corn, or maize, in American English is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch. The practice of eating corn can be traced back to prehistorical time, and in modern world now, we have corn as one of our staple food, as main carbohydrate and mineral sources. Most of the western countries have corn cereal as breakfast, making it one of the most consumed food in the world. Here comes the problem, when we are consuming corn, only the kernel are being consumed while the corncob and the rest of the plant(corn stover) will be disposed most of the time. Interestingly, corncob and corn stover are rich in cellulose, the vegetable fibers. The different arrangements of cellulose contribute to different types of fibers. The common examples of vegetable fibers that are widely used include cotton, hemp, jute, flax, ramie, sisal, bagasse, and banana. Surprisingly, the cellulose content of a corn stover is up to 37.4%, and the cellulose content for corncob is 39.1%. Which means, there are great potential that we can turn maize plant into textile products. From our research, Dextrose (corn sugar, commonly refer to D-glucose in market name), a type of glucose is capable of producing Poly Lactic Acid (PLA), a semi crystalline thermoplastic polymers, through a series of process. It can be used in a wide variety of applications, for examples, food service ware, fibers, and durables. This PLA polymers is 100% renewable, biodegradable, which is better than the traditional petroleum derived polymers. In fact, PLA is already exist in the market for a long time, but then corncobs and corn stover, as a vast container of cellulose, is not being utilized well to produce PLA. Hence, in this proposal, we are going to extract cellulose and hydrolyze it into Dextrose using enzymes, and convert it into PLA by fermentation, and lastly, make it into non-woven textiles....
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