Question 1. (1):
Distinguish among pathogenic, deficiency, hereditary and physiological diseases. Include at least one example of each. A pathogenic or an infectious disease is caused by an external infectious agent or pathogen such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. These pathogens are found in water, soil and air and a human body can be infected from drinking, eating or touching something infected with germs. Example: Pneumonia
A deficiency disease is caused by a deficiency of vital nutrients in the diet, especially a mineral or vitamin. The disease could be as a result of an insufficient intake of nutrients, their digestion, their absorption or their utilization within the body. Example: Scurvy
Hereditary diseases or genetic disorders are caused by an abnormality in a person's genome or genetic material. It is a disease that is passed down through several generations within the same family and is transmitted from a parent to their child. Example: Cystic Fibrosis.
A physiological disease is when the normal working of a person's body is being affected because the organs are malfunctioning or the structures of the cells have changed over time, causing illness. Eg. Diabetes
Question 1. (11)
Describe how each disease could be treated and controlled?
Pneumonia is possible to treat with antibiotics such as penicillin. Apart from that, other support may be necessary and can be controlled by chest physiotherapy, oxygen treatment. Scurvy is one of the oldest vitamin deficiency diseases recorded and the first one to be cured by adding a vitamin to the diet. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is necessary for collagen formation, which is the protein component of connective tissue, strong blood vessels, healthy skin and gums, formation of red blood cells, wound healing, and the absorption of iron. In addition to scurvy, other scurvy-like conditions can develop from a deficiency of vitamin C, such as adult acne, easy bruising, sore gums, and haemorrhages around bones. Good sources for vitamin C are citrus fruit, broccoli, strawberries, cantaloupe, and other fruits and vegetables.
If you have CF(cystic fibrosis), a doctor may prescribe antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medicines, bronchodilators, or mucus-thinning medicines. These medicines help treat or prevent lung infections, reduce swelling, open up the airways, and thin mucus. Antibiotics are the main treatment to prevent or treat lung infections. Your doctor may prescribe oral, inhaled, o intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Aerobic exercise that makes you breathe harder can help loosen the mucus in your airways so you can cough it up. Exercise also helps improve your overall physical condition.(controlled) Cystic fibrosis (CF) has no cure. However, treatments have greatly improved in recent years. The goals of CF treatment include: •
Preventing and controlling lung infections
Loosening and removing thick, sticky mucus from the lungs •
Preventing or treating blockages in the intestines
Providing enough nutrition
Preventing dehydration (a lack of fluid in the body)(treated)
Controlling diabetes includes exercise. Whenever you actively use a muscle, you burn both fatty acids and glucose. During and after periods of activity, your falling glucose level is sensed by the beta cells in your pancreas, and they relax their output of insulin.This gives your beta cells a break from excessive insulin production. In addition, the lower insulin levels signal your liver to empty its glucose reserves (glycogen) into the blood to supply the muscles with needed energy.As physical activity continues, the liver converts amino acids, lactic acid, and fats into glucose to supply the muscles. If the activity continues long enough, even the body's fat cells get in the game. They compensate for the reduced fatty acid levels in your blood by converting their stored triglycerides into fatty acids.When all of these steps are considered, it's easy to see why using your muscles is the...
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