biology

Good Essays
Chapter 1

Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations for

Biology
Eighth Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece
Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Overview: Inquiring About the World of Life
• Evolution
• Biology

Response
Evolutionary to the environment adaptation

• Life is recognized by what livings things do
• Biology consists of more than memorizing factual details Order

• Themes help organize biological information

Reproduction

Regulation/
Homeostasis

Energy processing Growth and development Theme: New Properties Emerge at Each Level in the Biological Hierarchy

The biosphere
Cells

Biomes

Organs and organ systems

Ecosystems

Cell

Organelles

Communities
Atoms

Tissues
Molecules
Populations

Organisms

Emergent Properties
• Emergent Properties: result from arrangement and interaction of parts within a system
– EXAMPLES?

The Power and Limitations of Reductionism
• Reductionism: breakdown of complex systems to simpler components more manageable to study – Example: the molecular structure of DNA

• Understanding biology balances reductionism with the study of emergent properties
– Example: new understanding comes from studying the interactions of DNA with other molecules Systems Biology
• System: combination of components that function together
• Systems biology: constructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
• Systems approach poses questions such as:
– How does a drug for blood pressure affect other organs? – How does increasing CO2 alter the biosphere?

Theme: Organisms Interact with Environments,
Exchanging Matter and Energy
• Every organism interacts with its environment, including abiotic factors and other organisms
• Both organisms and their environments

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