biological factors of the environment

Topics: Ethology, Altruism, Evolutionary psychology Pages: 7 (989 words) Published: September 16, 2014
AP Biology Reading Guide
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

Chapter 51: Animal Behavior

Name___________________________ Period___________

Chapter 51: Animal Behavior
Overview
1.

How is behavior defined?

Concept 51.1 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors 2.

What is ethology?

3.

What is the difference between proximate and ultimate causation?

4.

Using red-crowned cranes, what is an example of a proximate causation question and an example of an ultimate causation question?

5.

Who are the three ethologists who shared in a Nobel Prize for their work in 1973? We will look at work by each of them.

6.

What is a fixed action pattern (FAP)? Give an example.

7.

What is a sign stimulus? Give at least examples of sign stimuli.

8.

Nicholas Tinbergen’s work with the stickleback fish is a
classic study. Explain what he found. Use the terms fixed
action pattern and sign stimulus in your response.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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AP Biology Reading Guide
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw
9.

Chapter 51: Animal Behavior

Define these behavior terms:
Definition

Example

kinesis
taxis

10.

Explain what is meant by a circadian clock and circadian rhythms. Identify two behaviors, either plant or animal, that demonstrate a circadian rhythm. (You may need to refer to Chapter 49 or Chapter 36 for examples.)

11.

Discuss two navigational strategies used by birds to migrate.

12.

Animals communicate in various ways. Discuss at least three specific examples using different organisms.

13.

Notice the pictures that show fruit fly
courtship behavior (see AP Biology Lab
11B, “Reproductive Behavior in Fruit
Flies”). What different modes of
communication are used by the fruit fly?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

-2-

AP Biology Reading Guide
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

Chapter 51: Animal Behavior

14.

Karl von Frisch studied European honeybees. What are the two types of dances that a returning worker bee does, and what information does each dance convey? Use a labeled sketch to describe each dance.

15.

What are pheromones? Give three specific types of information that can be transmitted through pheromones.

Concept 51.2 Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior 16.

What is the difference between innate and learned behavior? Give an example of each.

17.

What is meant by fitness? How can habituation increase fitness?

18.

Describe the process of imprinting, and explain what is meant by sensitive or critical period.

19.

Describe the classic study of parental imprinting done by Konrad Lorenz.

20.

What special challenges did researchers face in order to return whooping cranes to the wild? What would you have to wear if you worked with hatchlings? Why?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

-3-

AP Biology Reading Guide
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw

Chapter 51: Animal Behavior

21.

There are several types of learning. What occurs in spatial learning?

22.

What are two types of associative learning? Which type did Ivan Pavlov use to get a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell?

23.

What occurs in operant conditioning?

24.

What is cognition? Give three examples of cognition in animal species; include at least one bird behavior.

25.

Many bird songs are learned during a critical period. What will happen if a white-crowned sparrow does not hear the song of its species during this time?

Concept 51.3 Both genetic makeup and environment contribute to the development of behaviors 26.

Based on cross-fostering and human twin studies, what are the two factors that contribute significantly to behavior?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

-4-

AP Biology Reading Guide
Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw
27.

Chapter 51: Animal Behavior

This concept looks at some very interesting ways that genetic...
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