biol 1209 writing assignment 1

Topics: Allele Pages: 8 (938 words) Published: March 30, 2014
BIOL 1209
Writing Assignment 1
Cover Sheet

I certify that the writing in this assignment is my individual work and is my sole intellectual property. It does not contain the ideas, or writing of other individuals/authors.

Author ___________________________Date ___________________

Lab Instructor ____________________Lab Section # ____________

The Change in Allele Frequency of the Male Cichlid Fish Population

General Research Question:

Lake Malawi’s cichlid male population of fish are tested on their ability to build bowers to attract the female population. Altering this extended phenotype, or ability to build bowers resulted in no change of mating, but males that built successful bowers showed to be less aggressive with other males in the population. This is important in maintaining polymorphic populations (Magalhaes, 2014). In my self-created scenario, the focus is on the small male population of cichlid fish. The male cichlid fish ability to build successful bowers is dominant while not building successful bowers is recessive within the population. After a recent hurricane wiped out the cichlid population food source, the male population has been tested on their ability to find other food for the female population. The ability includes better strength and speed. Female cichlid fish find this new ability to more attractive than building successful bowers because of this environmental change. The purpose of this study is to determine natural selection and to see if the male population of cichlid fish will be altered due to the changes in their environment.

Null Hypothesis: The male population of cichlid fish will not have an altered allele frequency due to changes in the environment.

Alternative Hypothesis: The male population of cichlid fish will have an altered allele frequency due to changes in the environment.

Methods:

PopG software was used to perform this experiment. The data listed below are the settings used for each trial of each different figure.

Figure 1
Population size =100
Fitness values
AA =1.0
Aa = 1.0
aa = 1.0
Mutation Rate
A→a =0.03
a→A = 0
Migration = 0
Initial allele frequency = 0.5
Number of generations = 100

Figure 2
Population size = 100
Fitness values
AA = 1.0
Aa = 1.0
aa = 1.0
Mutation Rate
A→a = 0
a→A = 0
Migration = 0.8
Initial allele frequency = 0.5
Number of generations = 100

Figure 3
Population size =100
Fitness values
AA =0.5
Aa = 1.0
aa = 0.6
Mutation Rate
A→a =0
a→A =0
Migration = 0
Initial allele frequency = 0.5
Number of generations = 100

Figure 4
Population size =100
Fitness values
AA =1.0
Aa = 1.0
aa = 1.0
Mutation Rate
A→a =0
a→A = 0.001
Migration = 0
Initial allele frequency = 0.5
Number of generations =100

Results:

The frequency of alleles of the male population of cichlid fish is shown in the graphs below. Each figure consists the average of five trials. In figure 1 a mutation that takes over the recessive alleles in the male population of cichlid fish causes the allele frequency to become a rate of 0.116. Figure 2 shows the effect of migration at a rate of 0.8 on the male cichlid fish population. The parameter of migration makes the average allele frequency 0.366. Figure 3 involves a change in the fitness of both the homozygous dominant and recessive alleles of the male cichlid fish. Their fitness are decreased to 0.5 and 0.6 and that results in an average of 0.496 for the allele frequency. The last figure, figure 4, involves another mutation, but over the dominant alleles at a rate of 0.001. The average after this new mutation is 0.318.

Figure 1. This graph depicts the average allele frequency value of male cichlid fish when a new mutation that goes from dominant to recessive arises in the male population after the hurricane hit Lake Malawi. Over five trials the average allele frequency after this mutation is shown to be 0.116....
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