Bioethics 1 Notes

Topics: Bioethics, Medicine, Medical ethics Pages: 11 (2461 words) Published: May 29, 2014
History[edit]
Etymology[edit]
The term Bioethics (Greek bios, life; ethos, behavior) was coined in 1926 by Fritz Jahr, who "anticipated many of the arguments and discussions now current in biological research involving animals" in an article about the "bioethical imperative," as he called it, regarding the scientific use of animals and plants.[1] In 1970, the American biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter also used the term with a broader meaning including solidarity towards the biosphere, thus generating a "global ethics," a discipline representing a link between biology, ecology, medicine and human values in order to attain the survival of both human beings and other animal species.[2][3]

Purpose and scope[edit]
The field of bioethics has addressed a broad swathe of human inquiry, ranging from debates over the boundaries of life (e.g. abortion, euthanasia), surrogacy, the allocation of scarce health care resources (e.g. organ donation, health care rationing) to the right to refuse medical care for religious or cultural reasons. Bioethicists often disagree among themselves over the precise limits of their discipline, debating whether the field should concern itself with the ethical evaluation of all questions involving biology and medicine, or only a subset of these questions. Some bioethicists would narrow ethical evaluation only to the morality of medical treatments or technological innovations, and the timing of medical treatment of humans. Others would broaden the scope of ethical evaluation to include the morality of all actions that might help or harm organisms capable of feeling fear.

The scope of bioethics can expand with biotechnology, including cloning, gene therapy, life extension, human genetic engineering, astroethics and life in space,[4] and manipulation of basic biology through altered DNA, XNA and proteins.[5] These developments will affect future evolution, and may require new principles that address life at its core, such as biotic ethics that values life itself at its basic biological processes and structures, and seeks their propagation.[6]

Principles[edit]
One of the first areas addressed by modern bioethicists was that of human experimentation. The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was initially established in 1974 to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects. However, the fundamental principles announced in the Belmont Report (1979)—namely, autonomy, beneficence and justice—have influenced the thinking of bioethicists across a wide range of issues. Others have added non-maleficence, human dignity and the sanctity of life to this list of cardinal values.

Another important principle of bioethics is its placement of value on discussion and presentation. Numerous discussion based bioethics groups exist in universities across the United States to champion exactly such goals. Examples include the Ohio State Bioethics Society[7] and the Bioethics Society of Cornell.[8] Professional level versions of these organizations also exist.

Medical ethics[edit]
Main article: Medical ethics
Medical ethics is the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology.

Medical ethics tends to be understood narrowly as an applied professional ethics, whereas bioethics appears to have worked more expansive concerns, touching upon the philosophy of science and issues of biotechnology. Still, the two fields often overlap and the distinction is more a matter of style than professional consensus. Medical ethics shares many principles with other branches of healthcare ethics, such as nursing ethics. A bioethicist assists the health care and research community in examining moral...

References: Jump up ^ Goldim, J. R. (2009). Revisiting the beginning of bioethics: The contributions of Fritz Jahr (1927). Perspect Biol Med, Sum, 377-380.
Jump up ^ Freemont, P. F.; Kitney, R. I. (2012). Synthetic Biology. New Jersey: World Scientific. ISBN 978-1-84816-862-6.
Jump up ^ Mautner, Michael N. (2009). "Life-centered ethics, and the human future in space". Bioethics 23: 433–440. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00688.x. PMID 19077128.
General bioethics[edit]
Andre, Judith (2002), Bioethics as Practice, Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0-8078-2733-9
Appel, Jacob (August 9, 2009), "A Supreme Court for Bioethics", Huffington Post
Aulisio, Mark; Arnold, Robert; Younger, Stuart (2003), Ethics Consultation; from theory to practice, Baltimore, London: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-7165-4
Faden, Ruth (2004), Bioethics: A field in transition, Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Caplan, Arthur Smart Mice Not So Smart People Rowman Littlefield 2006
Jonathan, Baron (2006), Against Bioethics, The MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-02596-6
Kaldis, Byron (2011)
Korthals, Michiel; Robert J. Bogers (eds.) (2004), Ethics for Life Scientists, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-3178-6
Kuczewski, Mark G.; Ronald Polansky (eds.) (2002), Bioethics: Ancient Themes in Contemporary Issues, The MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-61177-0
Murphy, Timothy (2004), Case Studies in Biomedical Research Ethics, The MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-13437-8
Ravitsky, Vardit; Fiester, Autumn; Caplan, Arthur (eds.) (2009), The Penn Center Guide to Bioethics, New York: Springer, ISBN 978-0-8261-1522-5
Tauber, Alfred I (2005), Patient Autonomy and the Ethics of Responsibility, Cambridge: MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-70112-X
Christian bioethics[edit]
Colson, Charles W. (ed.) (2004). Human Dignity in the Biotech Century: A Christian Vision for Public Policy. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0-8308-2783-8
Demy, Timothy J
Pope John Paul II. (1995). Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-8129-2671-4
Kilner, John et al
Kilner, John F., Arlene B. Miller, and Edmund D. Pellegrino (eds.). (1996). Dignity and Dying: A Christian Appraisal. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co.; and Carlisle, United Kingdom: Paternoster Press. ISBN 0-8028-4232-1
Meilaender, Gilbert (2004)
Pope Paul VI. (1968). Humanae Vitae: Human Life. Vatican City.
Smith, Wesley J. (2004). Consumer 's Guide to A Brave New World. San Francisco: Encounter Books. ISBN 1-893554-99-6
Smith, Wesley J
Smith, Wesley J. (1997). Forced Exit: The Slippery Slope from Assisted Suicide to Murder. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0-8129-2790-7
Stewart, Gary P
Stewart, Gary P. et al. (1998). Basic Questions on End of Life Decisions: How Do We Know What 's Right? Grand Rapids: Kregel. ISBN 0-8254-3070-4
Westphal, Euler Renato
Dorff, Elliot N. (1998). Matters of Life and Death: A Jewish Approach to Modern Medical Ethics. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 0-8276-0647-8
Feldman DM
Freedman B. (1999). Duty and healing: foundations of a Jewish bioethic. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92179-1
Jakobovits I
Mackler, Aaron L. (ed.) (2000). Life & Death Responsibilities in Jewish Biomedical Ethics. New York: JTS. ISBN 0-87334-081-7.
Rosner, Fred. (1986). Modern medicine and Jewish ethics. New York: Yeshiva University Press. ISBN 0-88125-091-0
Conservative Judaism Vol
Zohar, Noam J. (1997). Alternatives in Jewish Bioethics. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-3273-4
Muslim bioethics[edit]
Hamdy, Sherine. "Our Bodies Belong to God: Organ Transplantation, Islam, and the Struggle for Human Dignity in Egypt" (2012) Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-27176-0
Al Khayat MH
Ebrahim, Abul Fadl Mohsin. (1989). Abortion, Birth Control and Surrogate Parenting. An Islamic Perspective. Indianapolis. ISBN 0-89259-081-5
Esposito, John
Keown, Damien. (1995) Buddhism & Bioethics. London and New York: Macmillan/St. Martins Press.
Crawford, S. C. (2003) Hindu bioethics for the Twenty-first Century. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Crawford, S. C. (1995) Dilemmas of Life and Death, Hindu Ethics in A North American Context 1995. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Firth, S. (2005) End-of-life: a Hindu view. The Lancet. 366(9486): 682-686.
Lakhan, Shaheen. (2008) Hinduism: life and death. Student BMJ. 16(18):310-311.
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