BIODIVERSITY AND EXTINCTION

Topics: Biodiversity, Endangered species, Species Pages: 4 (852 words) Published: September 4, 2014
BIODIVERSITY AND EXTINCTION

Biodiversity is determined by the variety of species extant in a specific ecosystem; this includes both animals and plants. Biodiversity is what gives an ecosystem a continuing and symbiotic relationship between all the organic and inorganic elements; maintaining the proper balance of different gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and many other elements, which differ in composition depending on the type of environment (such as subterranean, aquatic and above ground ecosystems of different depths and different climates). The different relationships between the Macro-Organisms, microorganisms and the surrounding atmosphere and topography all work together to create the different environmental functions necessary to perform such actions as enriching soil, purifying water, and regulating climate. Overfishing, polluting of our waters and other anthropogenic activities have significantly threatened many of the world’s aquatic ecosystems. This is a daunting statistic when you consider that more than one billion of our planet’s population relies on fish as their main source of animal protein. Additionally, such factors as hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides have all threatened biodiversity in different ways. The selective use of specific hybrid seeds has substantially increased the risk of a single pathogen threatening massive numbers of crops due to the reduced agricultural biodiversity – by making all the identical crop types potentially victim of the same uncontrolled pathogen. Additionally, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides leach into the surrounding soil and water supply and kill off many different biological species – once again depleting the planet’s biodiversity. Also, as mining often requires large scale deforestation, this too results in the loss of biodiversity due to a number of animals losing their natural habitats. Chemical pollution caused by mining can destroy soil...

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