* Biodiesel production
Biodiesel production is the act of producing biodiesel through Trans esterification or alcoholises. The Process involves reacting vegetable oils or animal fats catalytically with short-chain aliphatic alcohols (Typically methanol or ethanol). There are a number of methods used in the production of biodiesel; The three most widely used technologies in this context are pyrolysis, micro emulsification and trans esterification (Schwab et al, 1987).
* Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
There are different feed stocks in use depending on the availability and economic benefits. The Predominant feedstock used in the United States is soybean oil, while rapeseed oil is mainly used in Europe. Other vegetable oils, such as corn, cottonseed, flax, sunflower and peanut, also can be used. These seed oils generally are more expensive than soybean oil. Palm oil and palm kernel oils have also been used successfully.
* Feedstock Pre-treatment
Before transesterification, the feedstock or oil has to usually undergo a number of treatments Stages to get rid of impurities such as phosphatides, free fatty acids, waxes, tocophenols or Colorants, which may interfere with the reaction. The process of degumming is usually used to Remove phosphatides which make the oil turbid during storage and enhances the accumulation of water in the biodiesel. Degumming could be water or acid based. Soluble phosphatides are removed by adding water to the oil at a temperature of 60˚- 90˚C and centrifuging. The insoluble 19
Phosphatides are removed adding acid solutions to decompose the material (Gutsche, 1997). A recent development for effectively getting rid of both soluble and insoluble phosphatides is the use of enzymatic hydrolysis (Dahlke and Buchold, 1995).
Deacidification is used in treating edible oils to prevent the rancid flavor in the product. For transesterrification the removal of excess amount of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) is vital....
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