biodiesel

Topics: Fatty acid, Cooking oil, Fat Pages: 18 (1795 words) Published: October 25, 2014
Review

Latest trends in feedstocks
for biodiesel production
Sara Pinzi, David Leiva-Candia, Isabel López-García, M. Dolores Redel-Macías, M. Pilar Dorado, University of Cordoba, Spain
Received January 18, 2013; revised June 28, 2013; and accepted July 3, 2013 View online August 14, 2013 at Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com); DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1435; Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. 8:126–143 (2014)

Abstract: Edible seed oil biodiesel has been criticized due to its low sustainability and potential conflict with food and fiber production for the use of arable land, besides high water and fertilizer requirements. In this context, biodiesel from non-edible sources, like animal fat, waste oil, insect oil, or single cell oil constitutes an alternative biofuel that omits the previous drawbacks. In this review and taking into account the previous consideration, the most interesting feedstocks for biodiesel production are shown. While frying oils and animal fats constitute the most extensively studied non-edible raw materials for biodiesel production, soapstocks are gaining interest among the scientific community. Finally, promising feedstocks for biodiesel production, such as microbial oil (also named single cell oil), insect oil, or microdiesel are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Keywords: low cost biodiesel; microalgae; microbial oil; single cell oil; insect oil

Introduction
ritish Petroleum’s (BP’s) Statistical Review of World
Energy estimated the accessible crude oil resources
about 171.1 thousand million tonnes at the end of
2010. Considering the current world consumption about
11.6 million tons of crude oil per day, fossil resources
will only be available for a short period of time.1,2
Furthermore, the combustion of fossil resources generates
massive emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are
contributing to the irreparable change to the global climate. Consequently, a sustainable and competitive alternative energy based on renewable and abundant feedstocks, like biomass3 or other regenerative sources,1 is in high

demand.
Nowadays, biodiesel is the only direct substitute for diesel fuel in compression ignition engines and the interest in this biofuel has been growing in recent decades because it
may effectively reduce the dependence on imported fossil

B

oil in the transport sector, in which the security of the
energy supply problem is most acute. Moreover, the use
of biodiesel reduces GHGs and the main harmful emissions to comply the new EU limits for exhaust emissions.4 Finally, biodiesel development could provide opportunities for local and regional development, especially in rural and isolated areas.

The most common feedstocks used in biodiesel production are vegetable oils derived from edible plants, such as rapeseed, palm, soybean, sunflower, and other oleaginous
crops. However, biodiesel from edible oils is controversial. During the last few years, some social movements accused
biofuels from edible raw materials of being the main cause
of increased global food market prices. The possible depletion of ecological resources due to intensive agricultural practices used in crop cultivation is another issue related
with edible oil biofuel. Traditionally, land has not only
been used for feeding purposes, i.e. coffee, tobacco, drinking alcohol, flowers, or cosmetic cultivars, among many

Correspondence to: M. Pilar Dorado. Department of Physical Chemistry and Applied Thermodynamics, Ed Leonardo da Vinci, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, ceiA3, 14071 Cordoba, Spain. E-mail: pilar.dorado@uco.es

126

© 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Review: Latest trends in feedstocks for biodiesel production

others. However, only energetic uses are under discussion. In any case, the production of food to feed the world population must be guaranteed.
Several...
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