The implementation of sustainable energy systems is an objective of the European Union’s energy policy. This policy aims to support and promote secure energy supplies with a high quality of service at competitive prices and in an environmentally compatible manner. The European Commission DG for Energy and Transport initiates, coordinates and manages energy saving policy actions focusing on energy efficiency, maintaining and enhancing security of energy supply and international co-operation. A central policy instrument is the support and promotion of energy Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD), principally through the ENERGIE sub-programme under the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme for RTD. This includes the HOSPITALS project (EU Contract NO: NNE5-2001-00295). The HOSPITALS project aims to demonstrate the significant reductions that can be achieved in the total energy demand of the European health care building sector. These energy demand reductions will contribute to significant reductions in CO2 emissions.
BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN CONCEPTS
The hospitals project covers a range of strategies to save energy in buildings, with a focus on hospital buildings. This brochure contains general information, guidelines and strategies for Bioclimatic Design of HOSPITALS. The brochure aims to illustrate methods of obtaining large energy savings using bioclimatic design strategies from the first stage of building design. The amount of energy saved and the resulting reduction in CO2 emissions are quantified. The brochure can be used by all those involved in the process of procuring and designing a health care building. The primary target groups of the HOSPITALS project are administrators, facilities managers, designers and contractors of health care buildings. The HOSPITALS initiative aims to demonstrate that renewable energy technologies may be used with very positive results within the European health care building sector and in this way encourage the exploitation of renewable energy. List of contents: • Building Orientation and Form • Building Envelope and Materials • Integration of Renewable Energies • Green Roofs • Water • Daylight Strategies
H O S P I T A L S
Building orientation and form
- the reduction and control of solar radiation; - the provision of natural ventilation and natural cooling of the external building surfaces by evaporative cooling.
- minimize the surface area of the south facing facade; - at the same time provide for natural lighting and shading; - avoid excessive solar gain during the cooling season; - use the roof as an active skin. It is important to consider the local climate during the first stage of building design. An energy conscious design which results in an energy efficient building has to be based on the local climate. In a new hospital, the shape and the orientation of the building should be first defined considering the climate of the area, the wind, the temperature and the solar radiation. It should be decided which areas of the hospital need more solar exposure and which hospital areas have a high internal heat load and need less solar exposure. The aim is the reduction of the annual energy demand. It is important to balance the various requirements. Patient comfort is clearly of paramount importance. Environmental impacts, energy consumption and aesthetics are also important but the primary aim when designing a new hospital should not be reducing the energy demand to zero. Nor should the form of the building be considered only in terms of the aesthetic result.
View of Deventer Hospital
Section view of Meyer Hospital
The section view of the Meyer Hospital shows that it has been designed partly sunk into the hill. This diminishes the impact of the building on the site and contributes to energy conservation by providing shelter so that the hospital is shielded from the prevailing winds by the hill and the trees....
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