Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate
Western Governors University
• Are proteins that act as catalysts, and carry out chemical reactions. • They speed up or slow down reactions, but remain unchanged. (Thinkwell, 2000) • Enzymes bind to a substrate (anything that needs to be changed into something else [molecule, protein etc.]) • Enzymes are important in cellular metabolism.
• Enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of carbohydrates and converts them into energy for the body to use.
Lock and Key Model or Induced Fit Diagram of Enzymatic Activity Effect of Enzymes on Activation Energy
Breakdown of Fructose
• Sucrose is made up of Glucose and Fructose bound together. • Sucrose can be broken down into glucose and fructose to produce energy. • Glucose is broken down into a pathway called “glycolysis” which produces pyruvate. Pyruvate then goes into the Citric Acid Cycle and produces ATP which is the energy needed in our bodies. • The first 2 steps of fructose breakdown is unique to fructose. • When Fructose is broken down, the enzyme fructokinase converts fructose to fructose-1-phosphate. An enzyme called Aldolase-B converts fructose-1-phosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde. DHAP and glyderaldehyde are then able to enter glycolysis to start the process of converting them into energy or ATP which is needed in our bodies. (Hudon-Miller, Enzymes and fructose breakdown) Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI)
• It is an inherited condition that affects the body’s ability to digest the sugar fructose. • Mutations in the ALDOB gene cause hereditary fructose intolerance. • The ALDOB gene provides instructions for making the aldolase B enzyme. • This enzyme is involved in the breakdown of fructose so sugar can be used as energy. • Aldolase B is responsible for the second step in the metabolism of fructose, which breaks down the molecule...
References: • Genetics Home Reference. (2013, April). Hereditary fructose intolerance. Retrieved from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hereditary-fructose-intolerance
• Hudon-Miller, S. (Producer). (2012, August 31). Enzymes and fructose breakdown [Web Video]. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRepj3rA4AQ&feature=youtu.be
• McGraw-Hill. (Producer). Electron transport system and ATP synthesis [Web Video]. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0 072437316/120071/bio11.swf::Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis
• Medline Plus. (2011, May 15). Hereditary fructose intolerance. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000359.htm
• Thinkwell Corp. (2000). Biology Lecture Notes.
http://wgu.thinkwell.com/students/getResources.c fm?levelFourID=5869633&levelThreeID=1820582& levelTwoID=350660&mode=browse
• Wikipedia. (2013, April). Lactic acidosis. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactic_acidosis
• Wikipedia. (2013, March). Coenzyme q10. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_Q10
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