Plant growth occurs throughout its life in a process known as indeterminate growth. This type of growth is capable because of the apical meristem and the lateral meristem. Meristem refers to a specialized section of plant tissue characterized by cell division and growth. Much of the mature plant's growth is provided by meristems in nature. And typically, Apical meristems found at the tips of stems and roots while lateral, or secondary, meristems found just under the surface along the length of the stem or root. When comes to their different functions, the lateral meristem is responsible for plant growth in girth, that is why stems and roots may grow in thickness or in diameter through cell divisions whereas the apical meristem is responsible for growth in length, the stem and roots can grow longer, for example (Campbell and Reece, 2008). There are many factors that can affect plant growth, and we can distinguish them based on internal and external including hormones, light, temperature, water, and nutrition (Resh, 1983). Plant hormones, also referred to as plant growth regulators, are one of the key factors in growth. In general, plant hormones regulate plant growth and maturity by influencing the differentiation, elongation, and cell division. We will focus on auxin and cytokinin during this experiment. Auxin functions in stem elongation, the development of roots, and vascular differentiation, among other things. And it is produced primarily in the shoot apical meristem and in young leaves. Cytokinins work to regulate call division in shoots and roots, and are made primarily in the roots. (Campbell and Reece, 2008). However, they interact to affect differentiation. A high auxin but low cytokinin ratio stimulates root development, whereas a low auxin but high cytokinin ratio stimulates bud development. Equal concentrations of auxin and cytokinin results in undifferentiated tissue or callus (Whitehead, Alan. 2009). Auxins also is involved in...
Bibliography: 1. Campbell, Neil., Jane Reece. 2008. Biology, 8th ed. Don O 'Neal ed. Benjamin Cummings Publishing, Menlo Park, California. Pp. 746, 825-833.
2. Plant Auxins - Phototropism & Geotropism; http://www.biology-online.org/3/5_plant_hormones.htm Jan.1, 2000
3. Whitehead, Alan. 2009. The Effects of Plant Hormones, Brassica rapa. University of Alabama at Birmingham. Lab Handout.
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