Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism &
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
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Many diseases and disorders are caused by defects in the molecular level of cells and not just having to do with nutrition or other extrinsic factors ,in this report ,we will specifically look at enzymes and their key role in energy production and the cycles and series of activities that make it possible for the human to function properly .
Enzymes have four basic characteristics .They do not make a reaction occur that would not occur on its own, they just enhance and make it happen quicker. The enzyme will not be changed by the reaction, it may be changed during the process, but the end product will leave the enzyme as it was when it started. Enyzmes can be used repeatedly. Enyzmes have specific substances in our bodies, so if enzymes don’t work properly, metabolism will not work properly. Enzymes do their work as catalyst by speeding up the process to improve performance. They lessen the activation energy making producing products easier .Enzymes act on specific substances in our bodies. The enzymes will fit into the substance or substrate like a lock and key .Once it is with its certain substrate, it acts like a key and it unlocks the substrate and the substrate can do what it needs to do and then the enzyme will releases from it and is not changed ,then it moves on to another substance. Heredity Fructose Intolerance is a condition that can be passed down through families ,in HFI,two copies of an abnormal gene are present ,thus making it an auto recessive disorder, and frequently it is seen in person without a history of the disorder .HFI is a condition that affects fructose metabolism ,basically the amount of Aldolase B’s substrate ,F1P ,changes when Aldolase B is deficient or doesn’t work at all. People that have this disorder do not have any symptoms if they do not ingest any fructose ,whether orally or by IV .F1P is a product of fructokinase and substrate for Aldolase B ,when Aldolase B is not available ,we start to see symptoms of HFI .Aldolase B is only seen in the kidney,liver,and small intestines. An excellent way to see enzymatic roles in our bodies is by studying how Fructose is metabolized in our liver .It is a multiply step, complex process .The first step is the conversion of fructose to fructose 1-phosphate by fructokinase ,which causes the fructose to become trapped in the liver .Then,Fructose-1-phosphate undergoes the chemical reaction called hydrolysis by fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (aldolase B) to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde. This usage of fructose leads to either glycolysis for the production of ATP or gluconeogenesis.Sanders, J. (2013) When fructose is taken into the body it is phosphorylated by fructokinase to make fructose 1 –phosphate , Aldolase B then impels F1P breakdown into glyceraldehyde and DHAP,that are used to go on to make ATP through glycolysis or to be used for storage through gluconeogenesis(glycolysis in reverse) .Fructose 1 Phosphate is a product and substrate but also a signal and it send out an alert for high blood sugar and will send signals to tell glucokinase to come out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm and lower blood sugar by sending out glucose to the body. Our bodies usually only have fructose in the blood if we have an increase amount of glucose or high blood sugar ,this means we have elevated F1P levels and that is when glucokinase needs to be released .When F1P is low and our blood sugar is low and our blood glucose is low ,glucokinase will go into the nucleus. When the liver senses hypoglycemia, it produces glucose to be sent to liver cells .Glycolysis reverses to gluconeogenesis to produce glucose to be released in the blood. With HFI,if there is an abundance of F1P because there is no Aldolase B,then our blood sugar is low and the...
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