Bio 101 Study Guide

Topics: Evolution, Biology, Gene Pages: 6 (978 words) Published: February 20, 2015
BIO 101 FALL 2014

Review Material (Similar to previous guides)
Know what (in a basic sense) a cell is

What is cell theory?

Know what eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells are

Know the basic structures possessed by these cells

Know their similarities and differences

Know the similarities and difference between the two types (animal and plant)

Know the function of some of the basic structures discussed

Know what the Endosymbiosis Theory is

Now you need to know the specific of the plasma membrane, its finer structure and significance

Be able to describe the structure and function of the animal and plant cell structures and organelles in class
Know the following organelles and cell structures: Cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, cytoskeleton

What is an allele?

Be able to define the following: Genotype, Phenotype, Transcription, Translation

Know the steps involved in transcription and translation

What are mutations? How do they lead to evolutionary changes?

Mutations that affect genes affect the phenotype
What experiment was used to show "evolution in action"?
Fruit flies and starvation resistance
What is natural selection? How does evolution via natural selection occur?
Three criteria: Variation, heritability, increase in reproductive success
What are the other ways evolution proceeds?
Genetic drift and Gene flow
Genetic drift is a shift in allele frequency that does not lead to increased fitness. It affects just a single population and occurs by chance (it is random)
Genetic drift can involve bottlenecks and founder effects (what are these?)
Gene flow involves alleles carried by individuals migrating from populations to populations, leading to changes to both populations What are the five primary lines of evidence for evolution?
Fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, molecular biology, field and laboratory experiments Be able to briefly describe these lines of evidence
What is homology? 1.) have to recent ancestry
2.)similar features
3.) Different functions
What is homoplasy? 1.) no recent common ancestry
2.)different features
3.) same function
What is macro and microevolution?
Macroevolution occurs above the species level
Accumulated effect of microevolution
Microevolution occurs at or below the species level
Minor shifts in allele frequency in a population

New Material Starts Here
Species and Species Concepts
What is a species?
What is the Biological Species Concept? Are there problems to it? If so, what are they?
Hybrid, fossils, asexual species….etc
Be able to describe the pre and postzygotic barriers that keep species separate
Behavioral, chemical, mechanical….etc
Of the classification levels used in biology, which is the most biologically relevant? Why? What is allopatric speciation?
What is sympatric speciation?
What examples were given in class of organisms that undergo sympatric speciation? What are evolutionary trees? How do biologists use them to organize biodiversity?

Animal Diversity I
What are four to five key characteristics all animals have?
How are animals classified?
Tissue layers
Symmetry (radial and bi-lateral)
Developmental biology
What are protostomes and deuterostomes?
Mouth first (nearly all animals), anus first (chordates and echinoderms)
Know what ecto, meso and endoderm are
Skin and some nervous tissue, bone and muscle, internal organs and tissue linings
Know the three different types of gut
What is a chordate?
What are the four main chordate characteristics? ****
*mostly used for support and movement
post-anal tail: Structure humans have lost it is used for balance and locomotion pharyngeal slits: also...
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