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Binge Drinking

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References
Bonar, E. E., Young, K. M., Hoffmann, E., Gumber, S., Cummings, J. P., Pavlick, M., & Rosenberg, H. (2012). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of university students ' definitions of binge drinking. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours, 26(2), 187-193. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026440
- This study contributes by providing insightful definitions of binge drinking according to what undergraduate students think they are, and these definitions are varied according to type of beverage, respondent’s gender and respondent’s drinking status.

Courtney, K. E., & Polich, J. (2009). Binge drinking in young adults: Data, definitions, and determinants. Psychological Bulletin, 135(1), 142-156. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014414
- This review contributes by suggesting reasons to why people consume excessive amounts of alcohol by exploring cognitive, biological and social factors. It suggests the direct influences of alcohol consumption in social settings and demonstrates the line between “moderate” drinking and “binge” drinking.

French, D. P. & Cooke, R. (2012), Using the theory of planned behavior to understand binge drinking: The importance of beliefs for developing interventions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17, 1–17. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8287.2010.02010.x
- This longitudinal study (over a period of one evening) contributes by exploring and identifing students’ salient beliefs on binge drinking and observes the extent to which these beliefs predict theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in relation to drinking intention and behavior. It assists in fully explaining the theory of planned behavior and gives insight to which statistical tests were used and why they were used.

Johnston, Kim L. and White, Katy M. (2003) Binge-drinking: A test of the role of group norms in the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Psychology and Health, 18, 63-77.
- This study assists in providing insight on how a social identity/self-categorization theory is utilized on top of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting binge drinking intentions and behavior. This study provides insight as to how the attitudes and norms of a behaviorally relevant reference group predict intentions to binge-drink and considers the effect of group membership on behavior; directy related to my second hypothesis.

Norman, P. & Conner, M. (2006). The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking: Assessing the moderating role of past behavior within the theory of planned behavior. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 55–70. doi: 10.1348/135910705X43741
- This study contributes as it assesses the key constructs of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in relation to binge drinking, and also assesses past binge drinking behavior. It analyses the predictors of binge drinking intentions and explores relationships between these predictors and intentions to binge drink.

Oxford Brookes University (2009). Drinking in the UK: an exploration of trends. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/1/Files/2009/5/6/Alcohol.pdf
- This evidence review contributes by analysing changing trends in the level of alcohol consumption. It explores trends which demonstrate the increase of alcohol consumption in women and a decrease in men. It explores the increasing drinking amongst older age groups and discusses and provides reasons to the downward trend amongst young adults. This is a relevant reference as it relates my third hypothesis.

Hypotheses
The general aim of this study is to explore what binge drinking is and to identify and investigate the main factors and reasons associated with high alcohol consumption amongst males and females across various age groups.
It is hypothesised that binge drinking will be found to be more undertaken by female respondents compared to male respondents.
Furthermore, It is also hypothesised that a respondent’s intention to binge drink will be predicted more by their subjective norms rather than their behavioural attitude or perceived behavioural control in relation to the Theory of Planned Behaviour.
Finally, It is expected that young adults between the age of 18 and 24 will binge drink more compared to adults aged 25+.
Operationalization of Variables (1) Gender and Emotional Stability will be used to predict the difference between Males and Females on their involvement in Binge Drinking. Gender will be operationalized through item 1. Involvement in Binge Drinking will be operationalized through items 28, 29, 32 and 34. (2) The factors of the Theory of Planned behaviour for examining why people binge drink are subjective norms, behavioural attitude and perceived behavioural control. Subjective norms will be operationalized through items: 35, 36, 37, 38, 50, 61, 63, 67 and 68 (For questions 67 and 68, only options relating to subjective norms e.g. “because of peer pressure”); Behavioural attitude will be operationalized through items 21, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 66, 67 and 68 (For questions 66, 67, and 68, only options relating to attitude e.g. “ to feel good”); Perceived Behavioural Control is operationalized through items 54, 55, 56, 58, 59 and 67 (only options relating to perceived control e.g. to facilitate better on a date”). Their intention to binge drink can be operationalized through item 34, 37, 38 (3) Age will be used to predict the amount of binge drinking that respondents partake in. Age will be established from items 2, 60 and 62 on the survey. Age will be apportioned into two categories; young adult (18-24) and adults (25+). Involvement in binge drinking will be operationalized through items 28, 29, 32 and 34.

Statistics
For the prediction that younger adults up to the age of 24 are more likely to binge drink compared to adults (25+), an independent (two-sampled) t-test will be used to analyze the difference of means between the two independent variables.
For the prediction that males more likely to binge drink compared to females, an independent (two-sampled) t-test will be used to analyze the difference of means between the two independent variables.
Finally, a correlation matrix will be performed to test whether any of the correlations of the independent variables are significant, then to perform a multiple regression to predict the effect or significance of ‘Subjective Norms’ on the intention to binge drink, amongst the other variables of ‘Behavioural Attitude’ and ‘Perceived Behavioural Control’.
This study aims to provide a clear understanding of the research to participants. This is done through a plain language statement covering all aspects of the study, including ethical procedures.

References: Johnston, Kim L. and White, Katy M. (2003) Binge-drinking: A test of the role of group norms in the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Psychology and Health, 18, 63-77.

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