SEPTEMBER 2013 SEMESTER
DEcEMBER 201 3 (THURSDAv)
- 5.30 PM (3 hours)
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet.
Begin EACH answer on a new page
where applicable, show clearly steps taken in arriving at the solutions and indicate ALL assumptions.
lndicate clearly answers that are cancelled, if any.
Do not open this Question Booklet until instructed.
There are TWENTY ONE (211 pages in this euestion Booklet
including the cover page.
Read the following passages and answer ALL the questions.
ln the 1940s and 50s, many artists had visions of a future where technology and
the evolution of civilisation created a kind of utopian society, There were flying cars and
underwater cities, and human civilisation had expanded outwards into space. There were, of course, predictions of a completely opposite kind of world, but this bright and optimistic retro-futurism was everywhere, not least in mainstream advertising.
Nowadays, pop culture predictions of the future are of
a more subdued and
dystopian nature. Civilisation is being destroyed by all kínds of viruses and zombie apocalypses, the planet is ruined by ecological disaster, usually man-made, and people
are scuffling to flnd food, water and shelter. Art and life reflect each other. lt is no wonder really that modern pop culture tends towards pessimism and disillusionment:
the world's clímate is changing, we seem to be slowly and surely destroying our environment and as technology advances, it seems more and more possible that we, humans, are capable of destroying ourselves.
Scientific studies of climate patterns and nature have shown that the Earth's
is actually changing, and ín the past few years the changes have
observable. Last year was among the 10 warmest years ever recorded. Earlier this year, Europe suffered through one of its longest and coldest winters and springs ever. The UK's Met Office reported that the country's spring was the coldest one ín 50 years and in fact, the region was still experiencing snowfall in the first few days of June, when summer is supposed to have officially started.
One of the scientific theories is that the greenhouse effect is a principal cause of
global warming, which was and still is a chief contributor to the accelerated melting of
glaciers and polar ice and other changes to the environment and climate. Humandominated ecosystems are nothing new
as with any of Earth's species, humans
change the environment in which they live. For centuries, humans have been planting
crops and building structures. However, human influence on Earth's ecosystems has never been as pervasive as it is now. Environmental scientists and ecologists state that
activities such as agriculture, industry, fishing and international
alter major biogeochemical cycles, among other things, which causes
further effect on the functioning of the Earth system.
The Second Assessment Report of the lntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated in 1996 that the greenhouse gas concentration that were
continuing to warm the planet and produced other changes in the Earth's climate could
be targely attributed to human activity, especially fossil fuel use, land-use change and agriculture. Only two weeks ago IPCC produced its Fifth Assessment Report which stated that human influence on the climate system is clear and is evidenced in most regions of the world.
"New Straits Times, Green technolog/. 12 October, 2013
Question 1a (i - v)
Which of the following would be the BEST title for the passage?...
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