Betty Neuman's Systems Model
"Health is a condition in which all parts and subparts are in harmony with the whole of the client.”
1924 - Born in Lowell, a village in Washington County, Ohio, United States, along the Muskingum River
1947 - Obtained her Registered Nurse Diploma from the Peoples Hospital School of Nursing, in Akron Ohio. After that, she went to California where she worked in a hospital as a staff nurse, and eventually became the head nurse. She also explored other fields, and experienced being a school nurse, industrial nurse, and clinical instructor.
1957 - She went to the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and took a double major in psychology and public health. She received her BS Nursing from this institution.
1966 - She completed her Masters degree in Mental Health, Public Health Consultation, also at UCLA. She became recognized as a pioneer in the field of nursing involvement in community mental health. 1970 - Started developing The Systems Model as a way to teach an introductory nursing course to nursing students. The goal was to provide a Holistic overview of the physiological, psychological, sociocultural, and developmental aspects of human beings.
1972 - After a two-year evaluation of her model, it was eventually published in Nursing Research.
1985 - She completed her doctorate in Clinical Psychology from Pacific Western University.
1988 - She founded the Neuman Systems Model Trustee Group, Inc. They are dedicated to the support, promotion and integrity of the Neuman Systems Model to guide nursing education, practice and research.
1992 - She was given an Honorary Doctorate of Letters, at the Neumann College, Aston, Pennsylvania. 1993 - Because of her important contributions to the field on Nursing, Dr. Neuman was named Honorary Member of the Fellowship of the American Academy of Nursing. 1998 - Received an Honorary Doctorate of Science from the Grand Valley State University in Michigan. For the past years, Dr. Betty Neuman has continuously developed and made famous the Neuman systems model through her work as an educator, author, health consultant, and speaker. Her model has been very widely accepted, and though it was originally designed to be used in nursing and is now being used by other health professions as well.
Betty Neuman took inspiration in developing her theory from the following theories/ philosophers: 1. Pierre Tielhard deChardin : a philosopher-priest that believed human beings are continually evolving towards a state of perfection – an Omega Point 2. Gestalt Theory : A theory of German origin which proposes that the dynamic interaction of the individual and the situation determines experience and behavior. 3. General Adaptation Syndrome mainly talks about an individual’s reaction to stress on the 3 levels a) alarm b) resistance c) exhaustion 4. General Systems Theory postulates that the world is made up of systems that are interconnected and are influenced by each other.
The Neuman System Model
• Viewed the client as an open system consisting of a basic structure or central core of energy resources which represent concentric circles • Each concentric circle or layer is made up of the five variable areas which are considered and occur simultaneously in each client concentric circles. These are: 1. Physiological - refers of bodily structure and function. 2. Psychological - refers to mental processes, functioning and emotions. 3. Sociocultural - refers to relationships; and social/cultural functions and activities. 4. Spiritual - refers to the influence of spiritual beliefs. 5. Developmental - refers to life’s developmental processes. Basic Structure Energy Resources This is otherwise known as the central core, which is made up of the basic survival factors common to all organisms. These include the following: 1. Normal temperature range – body temperature...
References: Balita, Carlito E. (2005). Ultimate Learning Guide to Nursing Review. Ultimate Learning Series
Marriner-Tomey, A. (1994). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (2nd edition). St. Louis: Mosby Octaviano, Eufemia F. and Balita, Carlito E. Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: The Philippine Perspective.Ultimate Learning Series, 2008
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