Betty Neuman by GM Orbegoso

Topics: Nursing, Public health, Nursing theory Pages: 14 (924 words) Published: January 1, 2015
Betty Neuman
System Model
in Nursing Practice
Prepared by:
Greg Martin S. Orbegoso

Betty Neuman's System model
provides a comprehensive,
flexible, holistic and system
based perspective for nursing
It focuses attention in the
response of the client system to
actual or potential
environmental stressors

Betty Neuman

• Born in Ohio and lives in
Watertown Ohio
• Worked in many areas in
Nursing practice
• Professor at UCLA
• Family Therapist
• Founder and Director of the
• Holds two Honorary Doctorates
• Fellow, American Academy in
Nursing, 1993

Betty Neuman System Model
in Nursing practice
Client Variables
- physiological, sociocultural, developmental and spiritual _ function to achieve stability in relation to the environmental stressors experienced by the client.
Lines of Resistance
- acts when the Normal Line of Defense is invaded by too much stressor causing alteration in the normal health pattern to facilitate coping and overcome the stressors that are present within the individual. Normal Line of Defense

- acts in coordination with the normal wellness state. It is the normal reaction of the client in response to stress – the baseline determinants of wellness within the health continuum.
Flexible Line of Defense
- helps the body to adjust to situations that threaten the imbalance within the client's stability.

-Stressors are forces that produce tensions, alterations or potential problems causing instability within the clients system.
-Reactions are the outcomes or produced results of certain stressors and actions of the lines resistance of a client. It can be positive or negative depending on the degree of reaction the client produces to adjust and adapt with the situation.

a. Negentropy is set towards stability or wellness
b. Egentropy is set towards disorganization of the system producing illness Prevention
-Prevention is used to attain balance within the continuum of health a. Primary Prevention- occurs before the system reacts to a stressor b. Secondary Prevention- occurs after the system reacts to a stressor and provides symptoms

c. Tertiary Prevention- occurs after the system has been treated through secondary prevention strategies



and line of





THE NEUMAN SYSTEMS MODEL. (Original diagram copyright 1970 by Betty Neuman)

The Metaparadigm in Nursing
Person- an individual, family community or the society.
open system that works together with other parts of its body as it interact with the environment.

Environment- can be internal, external and created force that interacts with a person's state of health.
improve the systems in which a person exists.

Internal environment exists within the client system
External environment exists outside the client system
Created environment created and developed unconsciously by the client

Health- dynamic in nature
- The state of wellness exists when all the parts or system of a person works harmoniously
The client system moves toward wellness when more energy is
available than is needed.
The client system moves toward illness and death when more
energy in needed than is available.

Nursing- a unique profession that is concerned with all
the variables, which influence the response a person might
have to a stressor. The person is seen as whole
and it is the task of nursing to address and able
to adjust to meet the individual and unique
needs of every client.

Existence of harmony in client
System needs are met

Disharmony among the parts of the
system, which is the result of
unmet needs in varying degrees

The major strength of the model is its flexibility for use in all areas of nursing – administration, education, and...
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