78.11 g mol−1
5.5 °C, 278.7 K, 41.9 °F
80.1 °C, 353.3 K, 176.18 °F
Solubility in water
1.79 g/L (15 °C)
soluble in alcohol, chloroform, CCl4, diethyl ether, acetone
54.8 x 10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)
0.652 cP at 20 °C
Std enthalpy of
formation ΔfH 298
entropy S 298
173.26 J/K mol
Specific heat capacity, C
136.0 J/K mol
R45, R46, R11, R16, R36/38,R48/23/24/25, R65
Carc. Cat. 1
Muta. Cat. 2
−11.63 °C; 11.07 °F; 261.52 K
497.78 °C; 928.00 °F; 770.93 K
930 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Supplementary data page
n, ε , etc.
Solid, liquid, gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
(what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C or 77 °F, 100 kPa)
Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. Its molecule is composed of 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring, with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. Because its molecules contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon. Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil, and is one of the most elementary petrochemicals. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon and the second [n]-annulene (-annulene), a cyclic hydrocarbon with a continuous pi bond. It is sometimes abbreviated Ph–H. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell. It is mainly used as a precursor to heavy chemicals, such as ethylbenzene and cumene, which are produced on a billion kilogram scale. Because it has a high octane number, it is an important component of gasoline, composing a few percent of its mass. Most non-industrial applications have been limited by benzene's carcinogenicity.
The word "benzene" derives historically from "gum benzoin", sometimes called "benjamin" (i.e., benzoin resin), an aromatic resin known to European pharmacists and perfumers since the 15th century as a product of southeast Asia. An acidic material was derived from benzoin by sublimation, and named "flowers of benzoin", or benzoic acid. The hydrocarbon derived from benzoic acid thus acquired the name benzin, benzol, or benzene. Michael Faraday first isolated and identified benzene in 1825 from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas, giving it the name bicarburet of hydrogen. In 1833, Eilhard Mitscherlich produced it via the distillation of benzoic acid (from gum benzoin) and lime. He gave the compound the name benzin.
In 1836, the French chemist Auguste Laurent named the substance "phène"; this is the root of the word phenol, which is hydroxylated benzene, and phenyl, which is the radical formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom (free radical H•) from benzene.
In 1845, Charles...
References:  Mansfield, Charles Blachford (1849) "Untersuchung des Steinkohlentheers" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kD4aAQAAMAAJ&
pg=PA162) (Investigation of coal tar), Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, vol
 Charles Mansfield filed for (November 11, 1847) and received (May 1848) a patent (no. 11,960) for the fractional distillation of coal tar.
 J. Loschmidt, Chemische Studien (Vienna, Austria-Hungary: Carl Gerold 's Sohn, 1861), pp. 30, 65 (http:/ / books. google. com/
 Rocke, A. J. (2010) Image and Reality: Kekule, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination, University of Chicago Press, pp. 186–227, ISBN
 Claus, Adolph K.L. (1867) Theoretische Betrachtungen und deren Anwendungen zur Systematik der organischen Chemie (Theoretical
considerations and their applications to the classification scheme of organic chemistry), Freiburg, Germany, p
 Dewar, James (1867) "On the oxidation of phenyl alcohol, and a mechanical arrangement adapted to illustrate structure in the non-saturated
hydrocarbons," (http:/ / books
 Ladenburg, Albert (1869) "Bemerkungen zur aromatischen Theorie" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Epg8AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA140)
(Observations on the aromatic theory), Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 2: 140–142.
 Armstrong, Henry E. (1887) "An explanation of the laws which govern substitution in the case of benzenoid compounds," (http:/ / books.
 Thiele, Johannes (1899) "Zur Kenntnis der ungesättigten Verbindungen" (On our knowledge of unsaturated compounds), Justus Liebig’s
Annalen der Chemie,306: 87–266; see: "VIII
125–129. (http:/ / books. google. je/ books?id=NYw8AAAAIAAJ& pg=RA1-PA125) See further: Thiele (1901) "Zur Kenntnis der
ungesättigen Verbindungen," Justus Liebig’s Annalen der Chemie, 319: 129–143.
 Gillis, Jean "Auguste Kekulé et son oeuvre, realisee a Gand de 1858 a 1867," Memoires de l 'Academie Royale de Belgique, 37:1 (1866),
environmentalhealthnews. org/ ehs/ newscience/ benzene-linked-to-neural-tube-birth-defects/ ). Environmentalhealthnews.org (2010-10-26).
environmentalhealthnews. org/ ehs/ newscience/ benzene-linked-to-sperm-abnormalities). Environmentalhealthnews.org (2010-02-16).
osha. gov/ pls/ oshaweb/ owadisp. show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS& p_id=24730). Osha.gov (2003-10-16). Retrieved on
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