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benefits of pets

By epoy08 Sep 25, 2014 9042 Words
College of Architecture and Fine Arts
Bulacan State University
Malolos, Bulacan 3000,Philippines
telefax(044) 791-6200.cafabsu@live.com

TITLE OF THESIS

ALAGA: A SOCIO-INTERACTIVE PARK FOR DOMESTIC PET ANIMALS

BY
AGUSTIN, EFREN JR., S

ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

I.

ABSTRACT
Providing a safe environment for both pet and human is tremendous challenge. If done correctly a

park for pet can be that place. In the Philippines, some neighborhoods and regional parks had liberal policies and permitted domestic pets to run free or off-leash on certain trails, but in most cities and other urban areas, dog owners or the pet owners were required to keep their dog on-leash when the animals left their own premises. Play and exercise are not the only important for the pet like dogs, cats, or birds’ physical needs, but these physical outlets also help to cement the human-dog bond (ANIMAL PLANET, 2006). In rural and urban environments pets are generally confined to a crate, portions of home, or small section in the yard most of the time. Unfortunately, legal ramifications, design considerations, social and behavioral patterns of pets, and environmental and health issues relating to pets and humans have not been adequately addressed in the design of some animals or pet parks. From that, this idea can be extract to create environment, with good environment came identity from identity it will have cultural as well as economic, ecological, cultural, and pet and human benefit.

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
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II.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Philippines stands out as East Asia’s biggest dog owner, with the six times the per-capita number of pets seen in China which is the biggest country in the said part of the continent. Statistics from 2009 shows that in the Philippines, there is one pet dog for every eight people. This number continuously raises as remittances from migrant workers steadily increases thereby boosting disposable income that affords pet spending. The number of Filipino pet owners is growing significantly each year. There is now close to 9 million households (www.congress.gov) across the country with at least one dog. Clearly, pets are becoming part of the Filipino family. Considering the forgoing, it is just proper to start launching and/ or supporting campaigns the aim to protect the welfare of our pets, more particularly the canines. The Filipinos love the malls. The public, especially those reside in urbanized cities would frequently shopping malls for many different reasons. A lot of these shoppers do own a pet. However, because of lack facilities and places for their pets, it is quite inconvenient to bring these animals with them although they badly want to.

Pets serve good purpose to their masters and there are more than acceptable reasons and justifications why pet owners would want to bring them around anywhere they go. For one, pets are a good company and they are considered a man’s best friend especially for the elderly and the blind. Second, pets bring joy and fun to the family and to other people. Lastly, pets are now being considered members of the family here in the Philippines so it is just natural for the pet owners to want their pets to be present in whatever endeavor or activity they try to do.

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
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III.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the Philippines, the common routines of a domestic pets are to sleep, eat, and play and sometimes

they have no chance to socialize with other pets which will cause them becoming territorial and protective. According to Gary M. of PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment Animals) this routine will cause them abnormal behavior, stress, and may affect brain health and development, or may cause trauma. This study focuses on how to develop and create recreational park in the Philippines to guide the physical, mental, and behavioral needs of every pet owners and especially for domestic pets. There are also to be considered such as;



What are possible green strategies that can be applied for the pet park that can achieve the healthier environment for Domestic Pet Park?



What are the design considerations to apply to achieve the purpose of the place for its users?



What are the design measures to consider in recreational area for Domestic Pet Park that can be aesthetically, inspirational, educational, and sustainable?



What are the facilities and amenities needed by pets in the park?

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IV.

GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

GOAL
The aim of this study is to promote and proposed an innovative approach with safe environment for both pet and human that can help the psychological and behavioral condition of pet, at the same time, it is good for their physical needs. There are also things to be considered that needed to apply in the goal such as;



To study the relationship between pet and human experience and green strategies design based on the data analysis of the study.



To provide design recommendations developed from the findings of this study to enhance current design practices.



To present the implications of the findings of this study, and the resulting theory, on current practices in Pet Park design.

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OBJECTIVES
1. TO RESEARCH EXISTING PET PARK AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS
Strategies
 Using comparative charts, questionnaire and user trials or experience, research on existing park that will be documented within this text. As far as the effectiveness of existing strategies of pet parks, through comparative charts and performance criteria scores, the existing will be compared to the study.

2. TO CONDUCT EXTENSIVE RESEARCH ON EXISTING DESIGN METHODS THAT RELATING TO THE STUDY AND DESIGN OF PET THEME PARK OR OTHER DOMESTIC PARKS.

Strategies
 By conducting the different Philippine domestic household or even the pet owner experience, by phone or face to face at trade shows. It is also conducts study and case study about the recreational design that can be apply in proposal study.

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3. TO RESEARCH CURRENT PET BREED POPULATIONS AMONG THE PHILIPPINES HOUSEHOLDS.

Strategies
 Using statistical data compiled by the Philippine Animal Welfare Society (PAWS) and other agencies or department that relate to the field of study, relevant values on breed population such as dogs, cats, and other popular domestic pets in the Philippines, also the population location and pet owner demographics within the Philippines will be implemented in this document.

4. TO RESEARCH INSTINCTUAL ACTIVITY SETS AMONG POPULAR DOMESTIC PETS. Strategies
 After researching breed population and ranking the most popular pets currently owned in the Philippines, further research into the instinctual activities of specific breeds will be documented in a list of table to be used by designers.

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5. TO IDENTIFY CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND GREEN ARCHITECTURE DESIGN APPROACH METHODS THAT WORK WELL FOR HUMAN AND PET.
Strategies
 By using interview, questionnaire and user experience, research for the current equipment and design strategies will be documented within this text. In order to test whether or not current design methods will work well for both human and pet. The processes that are needed for both will kept and others will be tagged as methods that do not work well for humans and pets. Then those processes should be separated accordingly into the human and animal functions of the new design approach.

6. TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENT DESIGN ELEMENTS SUITABLE FOR DOMESTIC PET PARK. Strategies
 This research strategy help to complete the study and design for Pet Park by using research about the climate responsive principles in landscape architecture, the after conducting research, consult to the landscape architect and come-up with solutions that contributes conducive place for its future users.

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V.

IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY
The results of this study should prove valuable for several reasons. First of all, the theory proposed in this study will add to the limited amount of theory available concerning domestic park design and will, therefore, provide designers a stronger theoretical foundation from which to begin the design of Pet Park. Another implication of this thesis is that the results of the study will help researchers develop a deeper understanding about what factors of promotes green community for domestic pet park that influence visitor attitudes. However, the design approach for domestic animals can only be “improved” if designers understand what factors of park are most significant in affecting visitor attitudes such as physical, mental, and behavioral for human and pet. Thus adding to the existing research concerning the design of park to shape of domestic behavior.

This thesis may also prove beneficial in that results may help to increase the amount of money brought into Pet Park through visitors. Accordingly to Joslin “it is fairly well known that the correlation exists between the length of time people stay in parks and the amount of money they spend.” If visitors are taking more time to play with their pets, there are likely to stay longer at each amenities. The longer the visitor the stays per amenities or area, the longer the visitors stays at the park, thus increasing the amount of money spent per person per visit to the park. Additionally, the results of this study may be used to help enhance the pet and human experience at the domestic pet park, creating happier visitors who are likely to increase the frequency and number of their trips to the park.

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
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VI.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
SCOPE
The study will cover some of the important parts such as approaches and concepts of Pet Park as a

humane landscape. This also approaches the design type by studying the guidelines for domestic animals for their physical, mental and behavioral, also developing environment in landscape design. This study will be about the methods of reconnecting people and animals or pets through this type of park, and the psychological impact of green strategies of Pet Park in both human and pet senses. The study has a wide concern also a comparison between the average numbers of domestic breeds that can be used for developing of domestic Pet Park. The research focuses in the domestic park that will develop into a high standard type of park not only became attractive but aesthetics, educational, recreational, and other sustainable value.

DELIMITATION
The researcher will try the best of their abilities to acquire the essential information needed, but due to unfavorable circumstances’ that may come up as the study continues there are many become restrictions which may limit the capacity of the researchers to obtain the necessary data. In this research, these are certain limitations that the researcher is facing such as few or limited information about the non-common domestic pets in the Philippines, limited information also for the park management. It is also limits the study on the part of massive structural architecture, engineering techniques and different technologies in constructing the plan.

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VII.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It will be significant in the part of developing usual park features that gives more function and

aesthetics especially for domestic pets that can be used as a ground in planning of park for domestic pet animals.
The main beneficiaries of this study are the pet enthusiast that has deep appreciation and respect to their pet. Also this research will enhance the concept of an outdoor environment within the domestic pet park.

USER: Domestic Park can be a productive park which can be a place for pet bonding and spending leisure time through amenities and

other activities.

ENVIRONMENT: The study will develop a park with can enhance the ecosystem of the place and also it can help the local biodiversity through green strategies.

HEALTH: This research will help the physical, mental, and behavioral of the users such as pet and human.

COMMUNITY: The study will create a new dimension of park for pet and human that contributed to them any satisfying new design consideration and concepts.

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VIII. ASSUMPTION OF STUDY
As animal-loving people who care if pets are receiving everything they need for quality life, it is expected that other animal owners do the same, but in this study it is assumed that the standard system of designing domestic parks would improve the overall satisfaction of the user. Even after developing a standard system of designing Pet Park, it can only be assumed that organizations and other departments will accept it as a standard method of design. The following are the list of agencies that will support the projects:



Philippines Animal Welfare Society (PAWS)



Philippines Animal Rehabilitation Center (PARC)



Department of Environment and Resources (DENR)



Animal Organization in the Philippines



Animal Kingdom Foundation (AKF)



Animal Welfare Coalition (AWC)



Compassion and Responsibility for Animals (CARA)



People Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PETA)



Department of Tourism (DOT)

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IX.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A SOCIO-INTERACTIVE PARK FOR DOMESTIC PET
ANIMALS





ENVIRONMENTAL
BENEFITS

PET AND HUMAN
BENEFITS









Community Pet Park
Pet Economy
Canine Activity
Animal Planet

1. Improve the quality life 
of domestic pet animals
and pet owners.

2. Easily socialize of pet
breeds nature.
3. Promotes second home
for domestic pet animals
through Pet Park.

Nature As Therapy
Dominance And Pack Theory
Dog Psychology
Animal Therapy

SOCIAL IMPACT


1. Promotes green
environment in urban city.
2. Improve and preserve
the cultural, ecological, and
economics in domestic pet 
park.

1. Recreational activities
(for both human and pet) 
programs will be increased
and improved the social

interaction.
2. Strong connection
between human and pet.

PSYCHOLOGICAL &
MENTAL FUNCTIONS
1. Reduced the domestic
pet’s attitudes like being
territorial and protective.
2. For both human and pet
they reduced mental and
physical stress.

Improved and create an effective innovative landscape design for domestic pets to guide their physical, mental, and behavioral development through domestic Pet Park.

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
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X.

CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
DOMESTIC PARK:





Phenomena:
-Strict leash laws
-Poorly managed for
domestic animals
-Boring environments






Results:
-Health issues
-Changing behavioral of
pets
-Territorial and protective

Planning and development of integrating feasible green
solution for Domestic Park

CASE STUDY:




Ayala Triangle Garden
Bonifacio global city
K9 Kulture mini park in Turf Club Rd,



Singapore
Bishan Park Dog Park

SITE: Bay City, Paranaque City

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S
Y
N
T
H
E
S
I
S

Human
Pet
Society
Economy




Environment
Biodiversity

ALAGA:
A SOCIOINTERACTIVE PARK
FOR DOMESTIC PET
ANIMALS

Concept:
“An
aesthetically
but
functionally
innovative design approach for the
companion animals to be showcasing
responsible management of a high standard
pet park to enhance the quality of the
featured amenities for the pets and petowners experience.”

GOAL:
Creating a safe space
environment for Pet
Park that can be help to
cement the human-pet
bond.

For the pet park considered the
sustainable materials, good
circulation, design consideration and
other soft materials like
vegetation/trees that can be effective
to the domestic park for both pet and
human.

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X1.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
From information gathered, there seems to be mixed opinions from the experts concerning domestic

pet parks. The World Wide Web is a great source for getting information about installed domestic parks. Before taking a pet to a dog park and other pet park, it is important to become familiar with domestic animal behavior, training, and health and there is plenty of information written on the subjects. There are also considering the concept and theories that help the study. Also the literature review focused on the benefits of canine companionship in terms of physical, psychological, and social aspects are discussed. Benefits from animals to the owners and the feasible design consideration for Domestic Park are tools to finish the effective space for both human and pet.

It is possible that a dog or pet owner could contract an internal parasite from a pet park and there is literature describing how to prevent this from occurring. There are sources listing what kinds of plants are poisonous to pets which can be helpful to domestic park designers. Articles and websites are written addressing the issue of proper disposal of dog waste and the problems that occur if done incorrectly. There are several books written about animal law. Knowing some of the potential legal problems can possibly prevent problems for the pet park designer. There is not much written about designing a domestic park, however there is plenty of information about designing parks and many of the same principles can be applied. Finally, it may not seem relevant to the design of pet parks, but it is important to become familiar with how pets are viewed in other countries and how other countries treat their pets. There is a lot of information on the subject and it interesting to get other perspectives about domestic pets.

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A. Health Benefits of Animals
Source: Between Pets and People: The Importance of Animal Companionship, Allen Beck and Aaronkatcher, March 11, 1996 (pg.56-58)

“A pet is a medication without side effects that has so many benefits. I can't always explain it myself, but for years now I've seen how an instance of having a pet is like an effective drug. It really does help people.” -Dr. Edward Creagan-

Pet Partners is the best resource for all things related to animals helping people. Did you know that animals like dogs, cats, and even guinea pigs have therapeutic effects on people? Utilize the navigation buttons on the left to learn more about the various health benefits that animals have on people of all ages including children, adults, seniors and families.

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These are some benefits being a pet lover:
1. GET SICK LESS!
If our cleaning commercials are to be believed, humanity is in the midst of a war against germs—and we won’t stop until every single one is dead. In reality, the amount of disinfecting we do is making us sicker; since our bodies are exposed to fewer germs we can’t build up immunities to them. Fortunately, dogs are covered in germs! Having a dog in the house means more bacteria enters the home and gets inside the occupants (one study found “dog-related biodiversity” is especially high on pillowcases.) In turn, people with dogs seem to get ill less frequently and less severely than people with cats or no pets.

2. RESISTANCE TO ALLERGIES!
While dogs can be one of the worst triggers for people with allergies, growing up in a house with a dog makes children less likely to develop allergies over the course of their lives. Even if you were just a fetus when your mother lived with a dog, you are still less likely to be bothered by animal hair and dander, or to develop eczema as an adult.

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3. BE HAPPIER!
Dog owners are less likely to suffer from depression than non-pet owners. Even for those people who do become clinically
depressed, having a pet to take care of can help those out of a depressive episode, in some cases more effectively even than medication. Since taking care of a dog requires a routine and forces you to stay at least a little active, it is harder to stay inside feeling down all the time. The interaction with and love received from a dog can also help people stay positive. Even the mere act of looking at your pet increases the amount of Oxytocin, the “feel good” chemical, in the brain.

4. BETTER HEART HEALTH!
Everything about owning a dog seems to lend itself to better heart health. Just the act of petting a dog lowers heart rate and blood pressure. A Chinese study found that people who own dogs get better sleep at night and are sick less often. Other studies show pet owners have slightly lower cholesterol and are more likely to survive a heart attack.

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5. MORE EXERCISE!
While other pets have positive effects on your health as
well, dogs have the added benefit of needing to be walked and played with numerous times a day. This means most dog owners get the recommended minimum 30 minutes of exercise a day,
lowering their risk of cardiovascular disease and keeping them in better overall shape than cat owners or people without pets.

6. A MORE ACTIVE SOCIAL LIFE!
Polls show people trust others who have dog’s
more than just random people walking on the street and
are more likely to go up and interact with them. Even if
you live alone, having a dog has the same emotional
benefit as that of a human friendship.

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8. A REFLECTION OF YOUR PERSONALITY!
The kind of dog you have tells people a lot about
your personality. A study in England found a very clear
correlation between people’s personalities and what type
of dogs they owned; for example, people who owned toy
dogs tended to be more intelligent, while owners of
utility dogs like Dalmatians and bulldogs were the most
conscientious. Other studies have found that dog owners
in general are more outgoing and friendly than cat owners. But be careful: Dogs also take on their owners' personality traits, so if you fly off the handle all the time, it might explain why your dog is so aggressive. 9. LOWER STRESS AT WORK!

The benefits of bringing a dog to work are so increasingly obvious that more companies are catching on. Studies show that people who interact with a pet while working have lower stress levels throughout the day, while people who do not bring a pet see their stress levels increase over time. Dogs in the office also lead to people taking more breaks, to play with or walk the dog, which makes them more energized when they return to work. This, in turn, has been shown to lead to much greater job satisfaction and productivity.

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A pet owner knows the enormous joy and comfort that an animal can provide, especially in troubled times. Most pets are considered important members of the family and irreplaceable companions. A growing body of research now documents the value of the human-animal bond in child development, elderly care, mental illness, physical impairment, dementia, abuse and trauma recovery, and the rehabilitation of incarcerated youth and adults.

B. BIOPHILIA AND BENEFITS OF DOG COMPANIONSHIP
Source: Companion animals and human health: Benefits, challenges, and the road ahead, by Marguerite O’Haire (2010) (pg. 238-245)

The idea of biophilia, coined by biologist Edward O. Wilson (1984), helps explain many aspects of human behavior with regard to human pet bond. The biophilia hypothesis suggests that there is an instinctive bond between human beings and other living systems. Wilson (1984) defined the term as “the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life.” Support for the ‘biophilia hypothesis’ has come from recent research that shows the effect of nature on physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown a significant relationship between contact with nature and improved health.

The physical health benefits of pet ownership have been reported widely in literature. According to the latest survey by APPMA (2005), fifty nine percent of dog owners say pets are good for their health and help them relax, and forty percent say that owning a dog motivates them to exercise on a regular basis. Seniors who own dogs go to the doctor less than those who do not found that pet owners have lower blood CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

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pressure and a higher on-year survival rate following coronary heart disease. Research further indicates that having a pet may decrease heart attack mortality by 3% (Friedmann et al., 1983). Having a pet can provide an impetus for participation in physical activity, which can help to maintain overall health and effective function in older people.

A theoretical model for human health and the pet connection (chart below). Pet owners’ health is influenced by human self-care and by the degree of attachment to the pet. The pet attachment effect is believed to incorporate several forms of social support, including companionship, support of self-esteem, and support in maintaining the activities of daily living. They also believe that pet care has a symbiotic or feedback relationship with attachment to a pet and with human self-care. In other words, pet care may provide a stimulus for human self-care or human self-care may provide a stimulus for pet care, so that pets provide pet owners with corresponding health benefits.

“A theoretical model for human health and pet connection” Attachment to pet

Personal
Physical

Pet care

Commitment to pet

Psychological

Public Health

Psychosocial
Human-self care
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Health
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C. PET PARTNER
Source: Gunter, B., 1999. Pets and people: the psychology of pet ownership. Whurr Publishers Ltd., London, UK. Pg34-36

In two articles in a recent issue of family process, entitled “human-animal bonds I” (focused on the benefits of companion animals) and “HUMAN –ANIMALS 2” (focused on their role in couple and family dynamics and family therapy), Dr.Froma Walsh reviews and distills the essence of this cutting-edge research. She examines how a bond with a pet can strengthen human resilience through times of crisis, persistent adversative, and disruptive transitions, such as relocation, divorce, widowhood, and adoption. The well-being and healing that a pet can provide include of arrange of relational benefits from stress reduction and playfulness, to loyal companionship, affection, comfort, security, and unconditional love. Pets also can be drawn into couple and family conflict. Women often do not leave abusive partners because of threats of abuse to beloved pet.

Dr. Walsh says, “The powerful meaning and significance of companion animals is underestimated.” Mental health professionals rarely consider these bonds in clinical assessment and intervention, with focus limited to human relationships profound attachments with pets—and grief in their loss—are often marginalized seen as abnormal, or altogether ignored in theory, training, and practice. These two articles provide an essential overview to inform clinical scholars and practitioners of the potential benefits in facilitating growth for individuals, couples, and families when companion animals are included as members of the healing team—and even co-therapists. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

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D. THE GARDEN SHOULD STIMULATE THE USER’S SENSES
Source: The Complete Book of Edible Landscaping: Home Landscaping with Food-Bearing Plants and ResourceSaving Techniques. Rosalind Creasy. 1982. Sierra Club Books

“Garden should stimulating environments- both mentally and physically and can be designed to provide a rich sensory experience. Sight tendsto dominate, but sometimes all you need to do is close your eyes and wait for the other senses to wake up and provide an unexpected new appreciation of the garden you never knew had!”(Rawlings, pg.12, 1998)

One particular quality of healing gardens is that they are designed to stimulate some or all the senses in such a way that is beneficial to those experiencing the garden. There are five senses that can be stimulated within the garden setting. All or some of these senses maybe chosen as a focus in design; smell, touch, taste, hearing and vision.

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E. Dog Behavior, Training and Health
Source: Laurel Allen., University of Pennsylvania, Dog Parks: Benefits and Liabilities (pg.13-24) There is an incredible amount of information on dog behavior, dog training, and dog health which is important in the discussion of dog parks because an aggressive dog can severely injure or harm the other dogs or people at a dog park and a sick dog could spread diseases. Brian Kilcommons (1999) has written Good Owners, Great Dogs, a training manual on how to care for puppies and adult dogs and how to understand and solve canine problems. A properly trained dog will come when it is called which will prevent possible conflicts at a dog park with other dogs. His book is easy to read and is a good, basic howto guide for training a dog. Patricia B. McConnell. Ph.D. (2006) has written several books including The Other End of the Leash which helps to explain how to properly play with your dog, training techniques, and how to better communicate with your dog. In her book For the Love of a Dog, Dr. McConnell discusses a dog’s emotions and how to read a dog’s facial expressions and posturing which is critical for 18 those planning to take their dogs to a dog parks. The Dog Whisper by Paul Owens (1999) gives a non- violent approach to training a dog and provides a list of essential things a dog needs for optimal health and growth. Owens explains how to train a dog and discusses the importance of a good diet and exercise. The American Kennel Club’s book entitled The Complete Dog Book (2006) is a reference book about the hundred and fifty- three breeds of dogs recognized by the club, the history of each breed, dog health, and nutrition information. A dog that is unhealthy is thought to be weak and is more vulnerable to attack by the other dogs at a dog park. The Animal Planet website (www.animal.discovery.com) gives basic pointers on CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

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how to exercise and properly care for a dog. On the subject of dog health, fitness professional and dog groomer Shawn Hamilton (2007) wrote a charming article on how to stay fit by “Working out with Your Dog”.

F. Dog Waste: A Perennial Problem of Dog Parks
Source: http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017&context=mes_capstones There is a limited amount of information regarding the environmental concerns associated with pet waste pickup. The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s website (www.epa.gov) article “Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin Managing Pet and Wildlife Waste to Prevent Contamination of Drinking Water” discusses various ways the general public can protect source water by implementing a management plan to pick up pet waste. In the article entitled “Picking Up After Your Pet” from the website (www.warringah.nsw.gove.au) the author shows how a dog park in Warringah, Australia creatively solves its dog waste problem by having a special “pooch patch” area. In the piece called “Public Open Space and Dogs” from website (www.petnet.com.au), the reader learns dog waste disposal methods and guidelines for dog park design and management. The “Pollution Prevention Fact Sheet” is a scientific journal that describes dog park design qualifications and posts statistics on dog owners’ waste pickup habits. In the article entitled “Responsible Dog Ownership” from the website (www.somdog.org), the author posts a top ten list of reasons to pick up after your dog and a list of proper dog owner etiquette.

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G. The Contribution of Parks to Human Health and Wellbeing
Source: Healthy parks, healthy people the health benefits of contact with nature in a park context Leisure and recreation Author Dr. Cecily Maller (March 2008) (pg. 120-125)

Component of health

Contribution of parks

Physical

Provide a variety of settings and infrastructure for various levels of formal and informal sport and recreation, for all
skill levels and abilities e.g. picnicking, walking, dog
training, running, cycling, ball games, sailing, surfing,
photography, bird watching, bushwalking, rock climbing,
camping

Mental

Make nature available for restoration from mental fatigue;
solitude and quiet; artistic inspiration and expression;
educational development (e.g. natural and cultural history)

Spiritual

Preserve the natural environment for contemplation,
reflection and inspiration; invoke a sense of place; facilitate feeling a connection to something beyond human concerns

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Provide settings for people to enhance their social networks

Social

and personal relationships from couples and families, to
social clubs and organizations’ of all sizes, from casual
picnicking to events days and Festivals.

Environmental

Preserve ecosystems and biodiversity, provide clean air and
water, maintain ecosystem function, and foster human
involvement in the natural environment (Friends of Parks
groups, etc.)

H. BENEFITS OF PARK
Source: Healthy parks, healthy people the health benefits of contact with nature in a park context Leisure and recreation Author Dr. Cecily Maller (March 2008) (pg. 120-125)

Although many benefits arise from the act of recreation itself, whether it be a hobby or playing a team sport, the concern here is with the types of recreation that occur in natural or semi-natural settings and the particular benefits that may arise from carrying out the activity in those settings. Leisure and recreation experiences in natural environments probably reduce stress through a number of mechanisms, including a sense of control through active coping or escape, and the therapeutic effects of exposure to natural environments that most likely have learned as well as biological origins (Ulrich et al., 1991a).

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

Recreation in the natural settings provided by parks is becoming increasingly important as our lives become dominated by indoor activities. Some authors anticipate that allowing people to interact with nature (such as spending time in parks during the working week) to reduce tension and increase competence and productivity, will eventually become socially accepted and actively encouraged (S. Kaplan in Lewis, 1996). Pursuing recreation in a park setting enables people to develop a clearer understanding of their relatedness to nature, which can influence their everyday lives and preferences (Martin, 1996). This can have quite a powerful effect as a form of intervention treatment, for example as used in wilderness therapy (from the article of ‘Health Benefits of Nature in Practice’). Wilderness and related studies clearly demonstrate that being in a natural environment affects people positively, although the exact benefits are still largely unknown. There are also multiple benefits from brief encounters with nature or experiencing nature on a smaller scale, such as in urban parks. These benefits may include: •

Opportunities for activity for older people;



Supervised child-care;



Health improvement and fitness motivation;



Education in sport, environment and other endeavors; and



Individual personal development.

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I. COMMUNITY GARDENS
Source: http://www.threespringsdurango.com/community/sustainability-programs/

The positive effects of gardening can be observed in the transformation of whole neighborhoods that occurs with the simple act of establishing a community garden. Community gardens provide opportunities for socializing with, and learning from, fellow gardeners and residents that may normally be unavailable. This aids community cohesion by dissolving prejudices about race, and economic or educational status (Lewis, 1990; Lewis, 1996).

A strengthening of community and social
capital may be derived from participation in
community

gardening

(Schukoske,

2000).

Bartolome et al. (2003) state that there is an
increasing interest in the role of community
gardens as a mechanism to strengthen social
infrastructure, particularly in inner city public
high-rise

housing

estates,

which

are

often

characterized by high levels of unemployment and
a high proportion of low-income elderly and singleparent families.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Design concept of community park from Land8.org
photo credit: Land8.org

29

ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

J. COMPANION ANIMALS
Source: Between Pets and People: The Importance of Animal Companionship, Allen Beck and Aaronkatcher, March 11, 1996 (pg.30-40)

The motivations for acquiring a pet reflect people’s perceptions of the benefits gained from having a pet. Chaseling (2001) observed that pets ‘offer companionship, a vector for meeting people, an exercise stimulus, they teach our children responsibility, they give pleasure, love and are loved in return’. Apart from owning or caring for a pet, studies have demonstrated that the sight of a pet alone can lower stress (Friedmann et al., 1983b; Katcher et al., 1983). Research using aquariums has shown that watching fish significantly lowered blood pressure and heart rate, and produced a greater state of relaxation (in groups of subjects with normal and high blood pressure) than watching an empty tank, or staring at a blank wall (Katcher et al., 1983). Watching the fish also increased the subjects’ ability to cope with subsequent stress. Looking at or stroking a pet can also lower blood pressure and make people feel more relaxed (Friedmann et al., 1983b They hypothesised that the presence of the animal could make the situation and/or the experimenter appear less threatening thereby reducing physiological responses. During the experiment, the dog was present in the room but not interacting with the children. Their findings showed the presence of a pet was associated with lower blood pressure and heart rate both while the children were resting and while reading aloud (Friedmann et al., 1983b).It is now widely recognised that healing influences exist in the relationships of humans to their pets (Birch, 1993) and that people who

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

own pets have better mental health and wellbeing than non-pet owners (Rowan and Beck, 1994; Straede and Gates, 1993.
A similar scenario exists for the effect of companion animals on societal health, and here too there is enough evidence to indicate that there are many benefits to be gained (Rowan and Beck, 1994). In terms of companion animals, parks provide an important outlet for people to interact with their pet (mostly applicable to dog-owners), both formally (e.g. training) and informally (e.g. play). An added benefit is the opportunity to also interact socially with other pet owners and park users, expanding or enhancing social networks. It is also important to emphasize the opportunity that parks provide for observing or encountering wildlife, particularly in those protected area parks that preserve the habitat of native fauna.

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EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

K. PRINCIPAL HEALTH OUTCOMES
Source: http://www.friskinaturen.org/media/healthy_parks_healthy_people

Below is a summary of the main benefits to the health and wellbeing for individuals and communities that arise from contact with nature. The benefits are summarized into the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s seven dimensions of holistic health (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1998), including:

1) Biological/mental wellbeing;
2) Social/community wellbeing;
3) Economic wellbeing;
4) Environmental wellbeing;
5) Life satisfaction;
6) Spiritual/existential wellbeing; and
7) ‘Other characteristics valued by humans’. (As the components of health are interrelated, there is some overlap.)

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
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K1. BIOLOGICAL AND MENTAL WELLBEING


Contact with nature provides a sense of wellbeing and positively influences immunity and cardiovascular function;



Contact with nature reduces the magnitude of the physiological response to stress and enhances the ability to cope with, and recover from, stressful episodes;



Some positive physiological effects of viewing nature include reduction of heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, and skin conductance;



Viewing or touching a pet or animals reduces stress, decreases blood pressure and heart rate;



Views of nature improve psychological health, particularly emotional and cognitive;



Natural surroundings assist cognitive functioning in children (including reducing the symptoms of attention deficit disorder);



Views of nature improve performance in attention demanding tasks and can restore concentration/attention;



Nature and parks promote healing in patients suffering from severe trauma, cancer, depression, anxiety, and other life-altering afflictions;



Pet ownership can reduce the risk factors for heart disease (systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, plasma triglycerides) independently of lifestyle and other health factors;



Views of nature reduce self-reports of illnesses, such as headaches and digestive disorders, in people who live or work in confined, indoor spaces (such as offices and prisons);Nurturing living

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EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

organisms may have distinct beneficial physiological (and emotional) responses that improve overall health and wellbeing;


Contact with nature improves self-awareness, self-esteem, self-concept, and positively affects mood state, which have positive flow-on effects to physiological state (such as boosting immunity);



Contact with nature is effective in alleviating the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic illness (including irritability, restlessness, insomnia, tension, headaches, and indigestion);



Pet ownership and interacting with plants (i.e. via gardening) encourages individuals to undertake physical exercise;



Pet-ownership can improve mental health by providing companionship (regardless of overall health, socio-economic status, or physical exercise).

L2. SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY WELLBEING


Interacting with nature or participating in nature-based activities in one’s local neighborhood (such as Friends of Parks groups) can promote a sense of community, foster a sense of belonging or sense of place, and enhance social ties/relationships;



Pet ownership can foster social relationships through contact with other pet owners (or park users), thereby expanding social networks;



Contact with nature reduces the stresses associated with urban living (such as crowding, noise, pollution, etc).

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Natural environments foster social capital within neighborhoods by providing settings for groups to meet formally and informally for recreational or leisure pursuits;



Where community members are engaged in civic environmentalism (for example, Friends of Parks and other community volunteer groups) there are significant spin-offs for social connectedness and social capital;



Residents who have nature nearby, or who regularly pursue nature related activities have greater neighborhood satisfaction, and have better overall health than residents who do not;



Nature in high density urban living can reduce vandalism, violence, crime rates, ease racial tension or prejudices, and result in neighborhood and personal transformation;



Contact with nature can foster a sense of identity and ownership, and provide a sense of integration rather than isolation for newly arrived migrants;



Horticultural therapy and animal-assisted therapy programs in prisons (via contact with plants or animals) can reduce aggression and vandalism in inmates, provide job training, and enhance selfesteem.

L3. ECONOMIC WELLBEING


Views of nature from detention centers and prisons have the potential to reduce the incidence of illness (particularly stress related illness) in inmates, reducing health care costs in prisons;

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Views of nature from hospitals and other care facilities (such as nursing homes) have the potential to reduce recovery time (number of days spent in hospital), reduce the quantities of medication required to treat patients, and reduce incidences of post-operative surgery in patients;



Contact with nature improves job satisfaction, overall health, and reduces job stress in the workforce as well as reducing number of sick days and employee absences;



Parks and natural features attract businesses;



Trees in urban streets attract consumers and tourists to business districts, and are seen to increase appeal;



Tourism is the third largest industry worldwide, with growth occurring particularly in wilderness or nature-based tourism;



Parks and nature tourism generate employment in regional areas;



Significant natural features, including parks and gardens, raise real estate values;



Contact with nature can potentially reduce the burden of disease on the current health care system. For example, for pet ownership alone preliminary estimates of savings to the health care system are between AUD$790 million to AUD$1.5 billion annually (Headey and Anderson, 1995);



Views of nature from detention centers and prisons have the potential to reduce the incidence of illness (particularly stress related illness) in inmates, also reducing health care costs in prisons;



Interaction with nature encourages a holistic/ecological approach to health, giving people a sense of control over their own health and wellbeing which may lead to less reliance on health care services.

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
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L4. ENVIRONMENTAL WELLBEING


Greater financial and in kind support for parks will assist conservation and improvement of the natural (indigenous) values of parks;



Increased participation in ‘Friends of Parks’ and other volunteer groups may improve natural values/capital within parks



Improved understanding of the need for natural areas may lead to green corridors and extended conservation areas



Greater awareness of the human health and wellbeing benefits of nature may improve conservation of additional natural spaces (such as those set aside for industry, for example).

L5. LIFE SATISFACTION


Contact with nature reduces the incidence of negative feelings such as anger, fear, anxiety, and frustration, and induces peace of mind;



Contact with nature, or having nature nearby, improves quality of life, work satisfaction, and the coping ability of residents in urban areas;



Natural environments foster a state of reflection, enabling one to gain perspective on life, and create an awareness of one’s surroundings;



Knowing that nature is nearby (particularly animals) improves quality of life and neighborhood satisfaction of residents;

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR



Contact with wilderness can develop leadership abilities, which translate positively into other areas of life;

L6. SPIRITUAL / EXISTENTIAL WELLBEING


Nature provides spiritual inspiration, enabling people to gain a different or deeper perspective on life, for example by the realization that they are part of something larger and universal;



Contact with nature can inspire feelings of peace, oneness, connectedness, and strength;



Nature is important to all people/cultures, in ‘developed’ and ‘undeveloped’ nations, for providing spiritual inspiration;



Contemplation of nature can inspire a sense of freedom, reverence, encourage humility, prompt introspection and reflection on personal values, and lead to spiritual growth or enlightenment;



Spirituality arising from contact with nature can reduce psychosis, substance abuse, and heal those suffering from violence and/or injury.

OTHER CHARACTERISTICS VALUED BY HUMANS
• Parks and nature are an affordable, non-elitist, highly accessible means of improving community health that may help people reach their full potential;
• Parks are a public resource yet to be fully utilized for individual and community health and wellbeing

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

XII. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This study needs to create a new system for research study used by companion animals and the pet owners. It is a possibility that the user surveys and the questionnaires will need to be tested or information from the data gathering stage. The researchers must also consider the relationship between the measurements of humans and the measurements of animals when designing a recreational area for the pet park that is used by both pet and human that sure it will be a great help in this study. For the study, in addition to receiving the literature, the researcher have gather a data in the following ways; 

Conducted two informal surveys with Domestic Pet Park or park users to determine why and how they use the parks.



Conducted ten-in-depth interviews with experts in various related fields about domestic care and practices.



Analyzed some domestic parks in local and even in other country to study their physical make-up, amenities provided, and visual appeal with accompanying photographic evidence for visual documentation.

A. Survey
The researcher conducted two informal surveys to gather information concerning the planning and development of environmentally sensitive pet parks in urban environments. In the first survey, the researchers try to ask some visitors and users of those parks of two qualitative questions: What are the benefits of going to a pet park and what might help to improve the experience? Information gathered from this study has given supporting evidence as to why people bring their pets to a particular park and how the

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

39

ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

experience could be enhanced. In the second survey, the researchers try to ask the residents of the urban area like around in Metro Manila or Malolos City, five questions as a means of assessing the need for a pet park in that city.

B. Interviews
The researcher conducted four qualitative interviews with people who are knowledgeable in the fields of veterinarian sciences, pet training, domestic pet (daycares) and even the landscape architect. This information provides an over-view on how professionals in the field of domestic pets view pet parks.

C.

Investigation and Photographic Documentation
The researcher conducted an analysis of some popular parks in urban area to obtain firsthand

information on the amenities and design features of each. From this data, the researcher intended to develop a handbook on the function aspects and the visual layouts of pet parks for the prospective park developers to use as a resource. Also include suggestions for additional services, conveniences, and design aspects that could enhance the overall experience of the pet park users and their pets, such as ideas to boost the park’s appearance and suggestions on how to create an environmentally-friendly setting. The researcher took photographs of the local and regional domestic parks to record the amenities offered and to provide a visual description. Also took photographs of interesting interactions between pet owners and their pets.

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

XIII. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Aesthetics - a set of principles concerned with the nature and appreciation of beauty, especially in art. Amenity- a desirable or useful feature or facility of a building or place. Anthropogenic - Resulting from the influence of human beings on nature. Biodiversity - The existence of many different kinds of plants and animals in an environment. Canine - a pointed tooth between the incisors and premolars of a mammal, often greatly enlarged in carnivores.

Design psychology- This is the conceptual tool to success by improving the performance, satisfaction, safety, health and well-being of Pet Park.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)- the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for governing and supervising the exploration, development, utilization, and conservation of the country's natural resources

Domestic Pets - any of various animals that have been tamed and made fit for a human environment. Ecology - Ecology is a term that is used in education to refer to the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. It can also be described as the study of the interaction of people with their environment

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR

Humane - having or showing compassion or benevolence.
Leash - a strap or cord for restraining and guiding a dog or other animal PAWS – Philippines Animal Welfare Society
Sensory experience - something that has to do with the senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, or hearing. Sustainable development – Any construction that can be maintained over time without damaging the environment.

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
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XIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS


Rosalind Creasy. 1982. Sierra Club Books The Complete Book of Edible Landscaping: Home Landscaping with Food-Bearing Plants and Resource-Saving Techniques.



Alen Beck And Aaronkatcher., March 11,1996 (pg.56-58) Between Pets And People: The Importance Of Animal Companionship



Between Pets And People: The Importance Of Animal Companionship,



Dr. Cecily Maller (March 2008) (pg. 120-125) Healthy parks, healthy people the health benefits of contact with nature in a park context Leisure and recreation.



Friedmann et al,1980; Siegel, 1990; Raina et al., 1999 & 2000., Siegel, 1990; Sable, 1995(pg.134140) Biophilia and benefits of dog companionship,Third edition by Printers and Publisher, Inc.



Hultsman Cottrell and Hultsman., Planning Parks for People, pg. 34



Laurel Allen., University of Pennsylvania, Dog Parks: Benefits Liabilities (and pg.13-24)



In P. McCardle, S. McCune, J.A Griffin & V. Maholmes(eds) How Animals Affect Us: Examining the Influence of Human Animal Interaction of Child Development and Human Health (pg. 163182). Washington, Dc: American Psychological Issociation



Kellert , Stephen R. and Edward O. Wilson 1993. The Biophilia Hyphothesis. Island Press “Garden of Senses”

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ALAGA: A socio-interactive park for domestic pet animals
EFREN S. AGUSTIN JR



Rosalind Creasy. 1982. Sierra Club Books The Complete Book of Edible Landscaping: Home Landscaping with Food-Bearing Plants and Resource-Saving Techniques.

WEBSITE


http://www.animalplanet.com/., ANIMAL PLANET,2006



http://www.friskinaturen.org/media/healthy_parks_healthy_people



http://www.congress.gov.ph/download/basic_16/HB04436



http://www.friskinaturen.org/media/healthy_parks_healthy_people



landarchs.com/fun-theory/



leerburg.com/philosophy



http://mentalfloss.com/article/51153/10-benefits-being-PET-owner



http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening



http://www.paws.org.ph/animal-welfare-act-ra-8485.html



http://www.peta.org/



http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017&context=mes_capstones



http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091130121441.htm



http://www.treesny.com



http://www.threespringsdurango.com/community/sustainability-programs

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