Behavioural and Cognitive psychological perspective
Behaviourism is different from most other approaches because they view people (and animals) as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment. Behaviourism is concerned with how environmental factors (called stimuli) affect observable behaviour (called the response). Behaviourism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behaviour. Behaviourism is the scientific study of observable behaviour working on the basis that behaviour can be reduced to learn Stimulus-Response units. Classical conditioning was studied by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated of the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies. B.F. Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behaviour. Skinner felt that some behaviour could be explained by the person's motive. Therefore behaviour occurs for a reason, and the three main behaviour shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans and it cannot explain for example the speed in which we pick up language. There must be biological factors involved. Cognitive perspective
The cognitive perspective is concerned with mental functions such as memory, perception, attention etc. It views people as being similar to computers in the way we process information (e.g. input-process-output). For example, both human brains and computers process information, store data and have input and output procedures. This had led cognitive psychologists to explain that memory comprises of three stages: encoding (where information is received and...
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