Psychoanalysis is a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis is the first dynamic theory of personality that talks about displacing, repressing, denying, venting, and regressing; The first is the emphasis on unconscious intraphysic, within the mind or self, dynamics. This is the movement of mental energy within the mind. The next is a belief in the primacy of the first five years. This is an assumption that the adult personality and other problems are formed primarily by experiences in early childhood. After this would be the belief that psychological developmednt occurs in fixed stages. During this time there can be predictable mental events that occur and also unconscious issues or crises that need to be resolved. Next is a focus on a person’s “psychic reality”, which is his or her fantasies and the symbolic meanings of events, rather than actual experiences as the main influence on behavior. And the last is a reliance on subjective rather than objective methods of getting at the truth of a person’s life.
Sigmund Freud most notable contributions are as follows. His emphasis on the unconscious mind, his view of the sex drive as a powerful human motive. His overemphasis on the sex drive as the primary human motive in the development of personality is a weakness. His explanation of defense mechanisms. Stressing that early childhood experiences affect the developing of someones personality.
Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and doesn't include any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the aquiring of new behavior based on environmental conditions. Behaviorists, led by John B. Watson, argued that psychology should study only observable behavior. Thus, they campaigned to redefine psychology as the science of behavior. Emphasizing the importance of the environment over heredity, the behaviorists began to...
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