I. What is behavioral Psychology?
* What is Behaviorism?
II. Who's Who in Behavioral Psychology
* Ivan Pavlov
* John B. Watson
* B.F. Skinner
* Edward Thorndike
* Clark Hull
III. Introduction to Classical Conditioning:
* Learning can occur through Associations
IV. Principles of Classical Conditioning
* Phenomena in Classical Conditioning
V. Introduction to Operant Conditioning
* Learning can occur through Rewards and Punishments
VI. Importance of Reinforcement Schedules
VII. Behavioral Analysis
VIII. Introduction to Behavior Change
* Elements of Change
* Stages of Change
IX. What is Behavioral Therapy?
X. Key Terms and Concepts
I. What is Behavioral Psychology?
Behavioral psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on observable behaviors. Conditioning, reinforcement and punishment are key concepts used by behaviorists.
A school of psychology that explains all mental and physical activity in terms of response by glands and muscles to external factors (stimuli).
Behavioral psychology believes that:
behavior is both conditioned and determined by its own outcomes or consequences (rewards and punishments);
human behavior can be understood by investigating animal behavior;
only the observable and measurable aspects of a behavior are worth investigating;
repetition alone brings mastery which is the same as understanding;
knowledge is something given by an instructor and taken (acquired) by a learner;
an instructor should focus on changing the learner's behavior and not his or her thinking patterns;
mind (and thus consciousness) does not exist as far as scientific investigation is concerned. Relying on the work of the Russian Nobel laureate physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) with dogs, behavioral psychology was developed by the US psychologist John Broadus Watson (1878-1958), and established as the then mainstream psychology by the US researcher Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990). It held sway during 1920s to 1960s but was largely abandoned afterwards in favor of the radically different discipline of cognitive psychology. However, its basic tenet that what people do is the only dependable indicator of their future behavior still holds as true as ever.
* What Is Behaviorism?
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. --John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson's classic paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913). Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behaviors.
According to behaviorism, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. This school of thought suggests that only observable behaviors should be studied, since internal states such as cognitions, emotions and moods are too subjective. * Two major types of conditioning:
1. Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus....
Skinner, B.F (31 July 1981). "Selection by Consequences". Science 213 (4507): 501–4. Bibcode:1981Sci...213..501S.
Baum, W.M. (2003). "The molar view of behavior and its usefulness in behavior analysis". Behavior Analyst Today 4: 78–81. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
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