Behavioral Aspects of Project Management
The behavioral aspects of project management consist of many different areas that a project manager must master. The organizational culture is one area that can take time to master for many project managers. The culture of an organization can be the success or the failure of a project. Management must be share common beliefs and values and be willing to stand by them at the most critical times.
The personality of the project leader is important and is critical to the project. The project leaders leadership will dictate if the project will be successful. The team has to believe in the manager and for this to happen the manager has to follow though with what they say they will do.
To build and manage a successful project team the project manager must be skilled in many areas. The project manager has to be able to select team members that will fit in with the team, manage meetings skillfully, establish a team identity and vision, establish ways of rewarding the team as well as individuals, manage conflicts within and outside the team, and be able to rejuvenate the team over long projects.
Organization Cultures Influence
Organizational culture research has identified ten primary characteristics that lead to successful or unsuccessful teams within an organization. These characteristics will in turn affect the selection, sponsorship, prioritization, and ultimate success of all projects in an organization (Gray, Larson, 2003). 1.
Member Identity is the employee's ability to identify with the organization. 2.
Team Emphasis the activities of the organization in which the team or individuals are emphasized. 3.
Management focus the decisions management makes that affect the employee's. 4.
Unit integration are teams within in an organization expected work independently or as a team. 5.
Control the oversight and control over an employee's behavior. These types of rules and policies of the organization to oversee employees will dictate to the employee what is acceptable and what is discouraged. 6.
Risk tolerance this allows or sets limits on an employee and teams to have a certain amount of innovation and risk seeking. 7.
Reward criteria the organizational culture to allow or disallow promotions and salary increases based on merit rather than nonperformance factors. 8.
Conflict tolerance the limits at which employees are able to air conflicts and criticism openly. 9.
Means versus end orientation is the outcome more important than the means to get to the outcome. 10.
Open-systems focus is how the organization reacts to external forces or environmental changes. The organizational culture is a system of shared beliefs, values, and assumptions by which people (employees) are connected. As Gray and Larson write, Culture is also one of the defining aspects of an organization that sets it apart from other organizations even in the same industry. The organization culture has several defining functions that affect each employee. The first is culture provides a sense of identity for its members. People will feel a close and strong connection with the organization if the mission of the organization is well defined and values are well stated. Secondly, the culture helps legitimize the management system of the organization. The system must also be well defined and clear. The employees must understand the structure of the company and understand authority relationships and why their authority is to be respected. Thirdly, the organization culture clarifies and reinforces standards of behavior. These are rules that define the appropriate and inappropriate behavior of its members. These include, challenging the judgment of superiors and collaborating with other departments. These two rules can have enormous effects on project teams. Lastly, the culture helps create social order within an organization. Management and the organization must have similar beliefs and values....
References: Gray, C.F., Larson, E.W. (2003). Operations Project Management: The Managerial Process, 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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