The management of disruptive behavior problems is a familiar concern for many schools. Student’s behavior problems are challenging at all levels in school in recent years, behavior difficulties in school have increased, teachers seem to be unprepared to deal with these problem. According to C.E.C.P (1998) “Difficult student misbehaviors, reported by teacher include violation of classroom rules, being truant from school, blaming others for problems, irresponsible behavior, and destruction of property. (p.21) Given the seriousness of these behaviors, teacher are spending disproportionately more time on behavior problems that take away from instructions, compromising learning for both the student with the behavior difficulties and rest of the classroom. Therefore, teachers need to formulate a plan to help students with their behavioral problems so that the learning and teaching process happens actively and smoothly.
2.0 Behavior Problems
2.1 Definition of behavior, problem, and behavior problem.
Behavior defines as the manner in which one behaves / The actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to external or internal stimuli. One of these actions or reactions: "a hormone . . . known to directly control sex-specific reproductive and parenting behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrates" (Thomas Maugh II). (Cited from American Heritage Dictionary)
Problem defines as any question or matter involving doubt, uncertainty, or difficulty/ a question proposed for solution or discussion / difficult to train or guide. (cited from dictionary.com) Behavior Problem
So basically behavior problems have both of the elements of behavior and problem. Which defines as a n action or reaction of a person to external or internal stimuli which involves qoubt, uncertainty or difficulty.
2.2 Types of behavioral problems.
There are 11 most common types of behavioral problem that a teacher might encounter in schools. (KidsBehavior (UK).mht). They are; a)Aggressive Outburst
b)Biting peers or objects
c)Pulling peers hair
d)Banging their head
e)Hitting their peers
f)Pinching their peers
g)Always being absent to class
h)Using violence in classroom
i)Lying/ blaming others
j)Usage of vulgar/abusive words
Not only behavior problems distract the attention in a classroom but also behavior disorder. Behavior disorder is a much more severe problem than behavior problems. This is because behavior disorders are hardwired in the students system. There are many types of behavior disorders and among them are a) autism, b) post-traumatic stress disorder and many more. Unfortunately, a teacher would not be able to help these types of children because this type of children needs special attention.
Therefore, if a teacher recognizes any kind of behavioral disorder in a child, the teacher should inform to his/her parents as soon as possible. As concerning with behavioral problems, there are number of methods/strategies techniques available to cure them. Teachers should know these methods/strategies/techniques in order to help the students to mend their behavior problem and to help the school from facing displin problems. The term for this methods/strategies/techniques is Behavior Modification
3.0 Overcoming Behavior Problems with Behavior Management and Behavior Modification 3.1 Definition of Behavior Management and Behavior Modification. Behavior management skills are particularly of importance to teachers in the educational system. Behavior management is all of the actions and conscious inactions to enhance the probability people, individually and in groups, choose behaviors, which are personally fulfilling, productive, and socially acceptable. Behavior modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to improve behavior, such as altering an individual's behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior and/or the reduction of maladaptive behavior through positive and negative punishment. 3.2 Behavior Management
1) Behavior management is applied at the group level by a classroom teacher as a form of behavioral engineering to produce high rates of student work completion and minimize classroom disruption.
2) “Contemporary behavior modification approaches involve students more actively in planning and shaping their own behavior through participation in the negotiation of contracts with their teachers and through exposure to training designed to help them to monitor and evaluate their behavior more actively, to learn techniques of self-control and problem solving, and to set goals and reinforce themselves for meeting these goals." – (Brophy (1986))
3) The most common practices of this behavior management rely on the use of applied behavior analysis principles such as positive reinforcement and mild punishments 4) This principle follows the Operant Conditioning system by B.F. Skinner, which is to describe the effects of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior. There are four types of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Positive and Negative Reinforcement strengthen behavior while both Punishment and Extinction weakens behavior.
5) Examples of situation whereby the teacher uses the two main types of operant conditioning.
3.2.1 Positive Reinforcement
Definition: Is an attempt to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring in the future, an operant response is followed by the presentation of an appetitive stimulus. Example of situation in a classroom on how to use positive reinforcement. A teacher who uses positive reinforcement will constantly and consistently praised the students, ignored small infractions and was encouraging no matter what answer the students get. Once one student was totally off track with his answer and the teacher's response was "no, but you are thinking and that is what I enjoy seeing you think, listen to others and try again." Every minute or two the teacher was saying something positive.
3.2.2 Negative Reinforcement
Definition: Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is reinforced by removal of a stimulus. The word "negative" does not mean "unpleasant." It means a stimulus is removed or "subtracted" from the situation as a form of reinforcement
Example of situation in a classroom on how to use negative reinforcement. Suppose your teacher said you could skip the final exam by studying an extra chapter and taking a quiz on it. You might study an extra chapter (your studying behavior would be made more frequent) because of the promise of an unpleasant stimulus, being removed (no final exam) Another example: If a student is trying to be the centre of the limelight by disrupting the classroom the teacher can use the avoidance strategy or punishment strategy as a negative reinforcement to the student.
3.3 Behavior Modification
The principles of using behavior modification are:
a) To develop a new behavior b) To strengthen a new behavior , c) To maintain an established behavior, d) To stop inappropriate behavior, and finally e) To modify emotional behavior. (Adapted from: Krumboltz, J., & Krumboltz, H. (1972). Changing children's behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall.) A : TO DEVELOP A NEW BEHAVIOR
There are 3 main principles to develop a new behavior which are i. Successive Approximation Principle: ( To teach a child to act in a manner in which he has seldom or never before behaved, reward successive steps to the final behavior.) ii. Continuous Reinforcement Principle: (To develop a new behavior that the child has not previously exhibited, arrange for an immediate reward after each correct performed it incorrectly. iii. Discrimination Principle: (To teach a child to act in a particular way under one set of circumstances but not in another, help him to identify the cues that differentiate the circumstances and reward him only when his action is appropriate to the cue.) B : To strengthen a new behavior
There are 2 main principle in strengthening a new behavior.
i. Decreasing Reinforcement Principle: (To encourage a child to continue performing an established behavior with few or no rewards, gradually require a longer time period or more correct responses before a correct behavior is rewarded.) ii. Variable Reinforcement Principle: (To improve or increase a child's performance of a certain activity, provide the child with an intermittent reward.) C :To maintain an established behavior
There is 1main principle in estbablishing a new behavior
i. Substitution Principle: (To change reinforcers when a previously effective reward is no longer controlling behavior, present it just before (or as soon as possible to) the time you present the new, hopefully more effective reward.) D :To stop inappropriate behavior
There is 3 main principle to stop inappropriate behavior
i. Satiation Principle: (To stop a child from acting in a particular way, you may allow him to continue (or insist that he continue) performing the undesired act until he tires of it.) ii. Extinction Principle: (To stop a child from acting in a particular way, you may arrange conditions so that he receives no rewards following the undesired act.) iii. Punishment Principle: (To stop a child from acting in a certain way, deliver an aversive stimuli immediately after the action occurs. Since punishment results in increased hostility and aggression, it should only be used infrequently and in conjunction with reinforcement.) E : To modify emotional behavior
There is 2 main principle to modify emotional behavior
i) Avoidance Principle: ( To teach a child to avoid a certain type of situation, simultaneously present to the child the situation to be avoided (or some representation of it) and some aversive conditon (or its representation) ii) Fear Reduction Principle: (To help a child overcome his fear of a particular situation, gradually increase his exposure to the feared situation while he is otherwise comfortable, relaxed, secure or rewarded.)
The effective use of behavioral and cognitive strategies in the classroom may appear daunting even to experienced teachers. However, changing your behavior and strategies is often the most efficient and effective means of improving all types of classroom behaviors Through practice comes proficiency. The building block of emotions and behavior likely contains the largest and most diverse set of problems encountered in the classroom. By first understanding these problems and seeing the world through the eyes of your students, and, then developing and using a set of i strategies on a regular basis, problems of emotions and behavior can be effectively managed and changed in the classroom and also behavior problems can be mended.