Topics: Rechargeable battery, Lead-acid battery, Car battery Pages: 6 (1203 words) Published: April 10, 2014


EN 13505790

EC 294 Society & Environment
Assessment 1 – Component 1

Today the world has evolved in to a high technological era. Electricity has become one of the major energy concerns; as a result battery production has increased in mass scale. Thousands and thousands of factories are being built each day. But what happens to those batteries after they are consumed? Do we have a proper wastage control mechanisms? Are they reliable?

There are news about battery recycling plants from all over the world. And also scientists are doing experiments on producing low cost eco-friendly batteries. Would these methods be enough to solve the entire pollution caused daily?

There are various types of batteries existing today. They can be categorized according to sizes, charge capacity, raw material they are made of; etc. But primarily they are of two kinds: rechargeable and non-rechargeable. Lead acid, cadmium batteries are examples for rechargeable batteries while alkaline batteries are commonly used as non-rechargeable batteries. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth. With this rate of industrial growth in battery manufacturing ,industrial wastes also increases. Primary batteries which can only be used once are dumped in wastelands causing mass environment pollution. As human beings we have to minimize the impacts caused to the we have to take precaution and waste management schemes to reduce the environment pollution caused during the battery manufacturing process. The 3-R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) concept can be applied to minimize the negative impacts caused. .Then only we can have “Better Products for a Better Future”.

Types of Batteries
(1) Primary Batteries (non-rechargeable)
Primary batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices.

(2) Secondary Batteries (rechargeable)
Secondary batteries can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries used for portable electronics.

Battery Manufacturing Process

There are Three main stages in Battery Manufacturing Process (1) Inputs
According to the manufacturers, Raw materials needed for the manufacturing of batteries are obtained and processed in this stage. (2) Manufacturing
The batteries are Manufactured, Tested and Packaged.
(3) Output
Final outcome is obtained. Byproducts are also treated in this stage. The manufacturer is ethically bound to reduce the environment pollution caused by the products.

Manufacturing Process of a Lead-Acid battery (car Battery)

Figure 1 : Manufacturing Process of lead Acid

Stage 1 :
Raw Materials are obtained by mining. Lead is the main raw material.

Stage 2 :
Grids are manufactured which are made out of Lead. In this stage Liquidized lead is used to form the grid structure and then cooled.

Stage 3 :
A chemical Paste is applied on the grids to enhance the electrolytic features of the battery. Then The Grid is dried and cut in to several small plates. Chemical additives have been used ever since the lead-acid battery became a commercial item, to reduce lead sulfate build up on plates and improve battery condition when added to the electrolyte of a vented lead–acid battery.

Stage 4 :
After the assembling the plates in to battery container; sulfuric acid (electrolyte) is filled in to the container.

Stage 5 :
Connecting the Terminals of the battery and testing it for its...

References: . [4 February 2014].
"Battery Council International". Retrieved 2006-06-01. Battery voltages
Deep Cycle Battery FAQ. Northern Arizona Wind & Sun. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
Energizer Rechargeable Batteries and Chargers: Frequently Asked Questions. Energizer. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
Battery Knowledge – AA Portable Power Corp. Retrieved 16 April 2007.
Battery Recycling » Earth 911. Retrieved 9 September 2007.
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