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By divyanshverma Jan 21, 2013 1915 Words
Basketball is a team sport, the objective being to shoot a ball through a basket horizontally positioned to score points while following a set of rules. Two teams of five players play on a marked rectangular court with a basket at each width end. A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket during regular play. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) may be issued when the game ends with a draw. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or throwing (passing) it to a team mate. Basketball has evolved many commonly used techniques of shooting, passing, dribbling, and rebounding, as well as specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures and techniques.  Typically, the tallest members of a team will play "center", "power forward" or "small forward" positions, while shorter players or those who possess the best ball handling skills and speed play "point guard" or "shooting guard". History

In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School (YMCA) [(today, Springfield College), USA], was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket". Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing improved the ball shape. The baskets were originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators on the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. The first men's national championship tournament, the National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball tournament, which still exists as the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) tournament, was organized in 1937. In 1946, the Basketball Association of America (BAA) was formed. The first game was played in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between the Toronto Huskies and New York Knickerbockers on November 1, 1946. Three seasons later, in 1949, the BAA merged with the National Basketball League to form the National Basketball Association (NBA). It is now at the top of professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition.

Flagrant foul
It is a violent contact made with an opponent. This includes hitting, kicking, and punching. If time expires before the flagrant foul occurs, the foul should be disregarded Technical foul
A player or a coach can commit this type of foul. It does not involve player contact or the ball but is instead about the 'manners' of the game. Foul language, obscenity, obscene gestures, and even arguing or dunking during warm-ups can be considered as a technical foul. double foul

It is a situation in which any two opponents commit personal fouls at approximately the same time.
It is illegal contact by the defensive player in the last two minutes of the game, or in overtime. Free Throw
A free throw is the privilege given a player to score one point by an unhindered attempt for the goal from a position directly behind the free throw line. This attempt must be made within 10 seconds. Backcourt violation 

Touching the ball in the backcourt after it has entered the frontcourt and was not last touched by the other team. Held ball
A held ball occurs when two opponents have one or both hands firmly on the ball and neither one can gain sole possession without undue roughness. A held ball should be called if there is danger of injury. It is also called common. The throw –in is then given to the offensive team. Traveling

Traveling is progressing in any direction while in possession of the ball. charging
Charging is a physical contact between an offensive player and a defensive player. In order to draw an offensive charge the defensive player must establish legal guarding positioning in the path of the offensive player. If contact is made, the officials would issue an offensive charge. No points will be allowed and the ball is turned over. The defensive player may not draw an offensive charge in the "restricted zone".

Blocking is physical contact between the offensive player and the defensive player when the defensive player is standing in the "restricted zone". double dribble
Dribbling the ball with both hands or picking up the dribble and then dribbling it again is considered double dribble. rules
The game begins with one player from either team at center court. A referee will toss the ball up between the two. The player that gets his hands on the ball will tip it to a teammate. This is called a tip-off. The defending players can take the ball from the offensive team by stealing it i.e. taking it when he is dribbling, taking a rebound or if the offensive team commits a foul (e.g. charging) or violation(running while holding the ball in hand). Each team is given a basket to defend and at half time the teams switch the defending baskets. When a team makes a basket, they score two points and the ball goes to the other team. If a basket, or field goal, is made outside of the three-point arc, then that basket is worth three points. Fouling a shooter always results in two or three free throws being given to the shooter, depending upon where the foul was called. If the shooter is beyond the three-point line, then he gets three shots. A player has 10 seconds to attempt a free throw. If the player does not attempt a free throw within 10 seconds of receiving the ball, the free throw attempt is lost, and a free throw violation is called. A limited number of time-outs for team meetings are allowed. They generally last no longer than one minute. The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee, one or two umpires and the table officials. The table officials are responsible for keeping track of each team’s scoring, timekeeping, individual and team fouls, player substitutions, team possession arrow, and the shot clock.

Player Positions
1. POINT Guard
Point guard (PG), also called the one or "the ball-handler". A point guard run’s the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right players at the right time. 2. SHOOTING Guard

The shooting guard (SG), is also known as the two. Players of the position are often shorter, leaner, and quicker than forwards. His main objective is to score points for his team.  3. Small Forward

The small forward (SF), is also known as three. The player at this position is considered to be perhaps the most versatile of the five main basketball positions. These players are primarily responsible for scoring points and taking rebound. 4. Power Forward

Power forward (PF) is also known as four. They typically play offensively with their backs towards the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket. 5. CENTER
The center (C) , is also known as the five.  The center is normally the tallest player on the team, and often has a great deal of strength and body mass as well.

 Dribbling refers to the maneuvering of a ball around a defender through short skillful taps by hands. The purpose of such an action is to bring the ball past a defender legally and to create opportunities to score. Passing

Passing is quicker than dribbling and so it is a deadly offensive tool for reaching that open man so they can have the shot. Shooting
This skill requires a lot of practice and precision. The whole game is depended on how the players shoot.

A rebound is the act of successfully gaining possession of the basketball after a missed field goal or free throw. It is divided into two categories – offensive rebounds and defensive rebounds

Time limits
Teams were required to advance the ball over the center line within ten seconds of gaining possession. FIBA reduced the requirement to eight seconds. Three-second rule prohibits offensive players from remaining in the restricted area for more than 3 sec. Shot Clock

It was introduced to increase the speed of play. Teams were then required to attempt a shot within 24 seconds of gaining possession, and the shot clock would be reset when the ball touched the basket's rim or the backboard, or the opponents gained possession.

An alley-oop in basketball is an offensive play in which one player throws the ball near the basket to a teammate who jumps, catches the ball in mid air and immediately scores a basket, usually with a slam dunk. 2.Assist

An assist is attributed to a player who passes the ball to a teammate in a way that leads to a basket. 10.Steal
A steal occurs when a defensive player legally causes a turnover by his positive, aggressive action.  3.Block
 A block occurs when a defensive player legally deflects a field goal attempt from an offensive player. The defender must not touch the offensive player's hands or otherwise a foul is called. This is also called a tap. 4.Buzzer beater

 A buzzer beater is a shot taken just before the game clock of a period expires, when the buzzer sounds.  5.Slam dunk
A slam dunk is a type of basketball shot that is performed when a player jumps in the air and manually powers the ball downward through the basket with one or both hands over the rim. 6.Jump shot

 A jump shot or jumper is an attempt to score a basket by jumping, usually straight up, and in mid-jump, propelling the ball in an arc into the basket. 8.Hook shot
A hook shot is a shot in which the offensive player, usually turned perpendicular to the basket, gently throws the ball with a sweeping motion of his arm in an upward arc with a follow-through which ends over his head. 9.Screen

A screen is a blocking move by an offensive player, by standing beside or behind a defender, to free a teammate to shoot, receives a pass, or drives in to score. Screens can be on-ball or off-ball. The two offensive players involved in setting the screen are known as the screener (who blocks the defender) and the cutter (who gets free from the defender). 7.Layup

A layup is a two-point shot attempt made by leaping from below, releasing the ball up near the basket using one hand.

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