Basic Concepts of Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy

Topics: Blood, Water, Renal physiology Pages: 165 (27783 words) Published: February 7, 2015
Dileep N. Lobo
Andrew J. P. Lewington
Simon P. Allison

Basic Concepts
of Fluid and
Electrolyte Therapy

Bibliographic information has been published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek. Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de

© Bibliomed – Medizinische Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Melsungen 2013 This publication is copyrighted, and any rights arising therefrom including but not limited to those relating to reprinting, reproduction of figures, translation and reproduction or utilization of this publication in whole or in part by photomechanical or any other means are reserved. Printed in Germany

ISBN 978-3-89556-058-3
Not available in bookstores

Basic Concepts of Fluid and
Electrolyte Therapy
Dileep N. Lobo, MS, DM, FRCS, FACS
Professor of Gastrointestinal Surgery
University of Nottingham
Queen’s Medical Centre
Nottingham
UK
Andrew J. P. Lewington, BSc, MD, MEd, FRCP, FRCPE
Consultant Renal Physician /Honorary Senior Lecturer
Leeds Teaching Hospitals
Leeds
UK
Simon P. Allison, MD, FRCP
Formerly Consultant Physician /Professor in Clinical Nutrition Nottingham University Hospitals
Queen’s Medical Centre
Nottingham
UK

3

Preface
Despite the fact that fluid and electrolyte preparations are the most commonly prescribed medications in hospitals, a number of studies have shown that the knowledge and practice of fluid and electrolyte balance among young doctors is suboptimal, possibly due to inadequate teaching. This is responsible for errors in management, which continue to cause avoidable morbidity and even mortality. It is not the intention of the authors of this book to write a comprehensive textbook dealing with complex problems, but to provide a pocket book for students, nurses and young doctors to help them to understand and solve some of the most common practical problems they face in dayto-day hospital practice. The authors hope that it will also stimulate them to pursue the subject in greater detail with further reading and practical experience. In difficult cases, the young doctor should never hesitate to ask for advice from senior and experienced colleagues. Dileep N. Lobo

Andrew J. P. Lewington
Simon P. Allison

4

Foreword
This book, ‘Basic Concepts of Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy’, fills a long felt need for an up to date pocket guide to the subject. Water and electrolyte balance is crucial for body homeostasis and is one of the most protected physiological mechanisms in the body. While we can survive for months without food, without water intake we die very quickly. Similarly the body has very strong mechanisms to control salt and water balance, an understanding of which has major implications in clinical practice.

Despite salt and water balance being so fundamental for homeostatic control, knowledge and practice of fluid and electrolyte therapy has been shown to be appallingly poor among many health care professionals. The results of such knowledge surveys have been reported by the authors and were surely the reason why they felt the urge to write this book.

Dileep Lobo, Andrew Lewington and Simon Allison are all well renowned experts in this field covering different aspects of the topic: surgery, renal medicine and clinical nutrition. This allows for a broad approach to the concepts of fluid and electrolyte management and gives the book sufficient depth to fulfil the basic needs of all medical specialties.

The book covers the basics in physiology and pathophysiology, how to assess fluid and electrolyte status, a clear overview of fluids used in clinical practice and how to prescribe them, and then moves on to describe and discuss some of the most common clinical problems. The book is rich in tables and figures that help the reader grasp the fundamentals, both physiological and pathophysiological. It contains examples of how to address clinical...

References: College of Surgeons, 1997.
Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths: London, 1999.
kidney injury. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2009;70:M104-7.
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