Basic Computer Programs
University of Phoenix
Prof. Timothy Orme
The following information will introduce general knowledge in basic programming concepts. It shall discuss basic types of computer programming languages as-well-as program development. There are three basic types of computer programming languages that will be discussed in a simple and easy to understand manner. We shall also describe the program development cycle and discuss why it is important to use a structured and organized process to create a computer programming language.
In every computer contains several components and works as team to perform certain operations and task. The following are the main components that make up a computer (Venit & Drake, 2007): * The Central Processing Unit (CPU), which is the brain of the computer * Internal memory (consisting of RAM and ROM)
* Mass storage devices (magnetic, optical and solid state drives) * Input devices (keyboard, mouse, scanner & optical devices) * Output devices (printer and monitor)
Located in the internal memory is where the list of instructions (computer programs) is stored on a hard drive. The hard drive is a semi-permanent storage area of a computer. There computer programming languages can be added, deleted or modified by the user to perform a variety of operations and task.
Thought there are numerous computer programming languages in the world today, we will focus on the three basic fundamental types of computer programming languages. 1) Machine Language
2) Assembly Language
3) High-level Language
Machine language consists of a sequence or pattern of bits that are all zeros & ones. Each combination or sequence is an instruction to the computer and is the only language a computer understands. However, this is a very difficult language for humans to read or write (Venit & Drake, 2007). You may ask yourself, how can this problem be resolved? Thus, begins the quest for an efficient, easy to learn, easy to use computer programming language that can be converted machine language to communicate with the computer. Assembly Language:
Assembly is a symbolic representation of Machine language. Each Assembly language instruction translates to one Machine language instruction. The computer must translate the Assembly code to Machine code in order to execute the instruction. This translation is accomplished by a special program called an Assembler (Venit & Drake, 2007). This programming language is easier to understand since it uses recognizable words and codes.
Assembly Language which is one of the mid-level languages unfortunately requires a great degree of patience and is time consuming to develop. However, one of the big advantages of mid-level languages is probability. A mid-level language enables a computer machine-independent coding. The Mid-level application is designed for different computer platforms and operating systems and has little change to its source code (Yared, 2007) High-level language:
High-level language usually contains words and phrases. High-level languages are easier to learn and use. A single instruction of High-level language translates into many instructions of Machine language.
There are several advantages of High level language over Machine or Assembly languages. * High-level is easier to learn & use
* They are easier to read and modify.
* A single High level instruction translate into many Machine instructions * High level programs can be easily modified to be used on another computer * Unfortunately, High level programs are less powerful and produce less efficient programs than Assembly or other Mid-level languages. The first High-level language was developed in the mid 1950s mainly for engineering and scientific applications were called FORTRAN (Formula...
References: Drake, E., & Venit, S. (2007). Extended Prelude to Programming Concepts & Design (3rd ed.). New York, New York: Pearson, Addison Wesley.
Yared, P. (2007, March). The Road to Our Scripting Future. Dr. Dobb 's Jounal, (32), 3.
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