Communication is a two way process of transmitting & receiving verbal & nonverbal messages & exchanging ideas or information effectively. There are six components of communication which are context, sender encoder, message, medium, receiver decoder, and feedback. With every component of communication there is also a process of the six components. Context component is in every communication, written or verbal, and context is a broad term that every country and culture has their own conventions for processing. Sender Encoder component is the sender of the message whether the message is written or verbal there will always be a sender encoder in any type of communication. Message is the component of what you are trying to communicate or the message you are trying to receive, a message can also be written or verbal. Medium is the component in which the message is sent like the content of the message whether written or verbal between the sender and the receiver. Receiver decoder is the receiver of the message whether written or verbal. The last component is the feedback, which is the response from the receiver of the information whether written or verbal.
The differences between listening and hearing in communication can also be broke into different components of communication. Hearing simply means that you may be hearing sounds going into your ear but you are not processing what is being said. You may even hear the words that are being said clearly but if you are not processing what is being said then you are not listening. Hearing can be written or verbal just like with any type of communication. If you receive an email and are just skimming the words and not really reading the complete email, then you are hearing what is said but you are not processing what is being said so you are not listening. In order to listen you must give your full attention to what the message is whether it is written or verbal. Hearing is the reception of sound while listening is the attachment of meaning to the sounds.
In any criminal justice organization there will be formal and informal channels of communication. With formal communication, you have established positions of authority that in turn initiate formal communications. Those who are higher up the organization establish models for procedures, job descriptions, duties, and chain of command. These models give all within the organization an effective method for communication as well as an understanding of who to communicate with in any instance. Further examples of formal communication are hand books, posted policies, and written training materials as well as reports. Informal communication could be looked at as verbal notice for policies, procedures, and instructions. This type of communication can add difficulties due to poor instruction or poor general communication skills. Informal communication could also be any communication between the criminal justice organization and the public. Information given to the public will generally lack certain detail and leave room for speculation. With communication with in the organization, information needs to be more formal and detailed in order to give a clear understanding about what is needed as well as expected.
There are many different types of barriers that can effect communication between the sender and the receiver of a message. You have physical barriers which could be any type of distracting background noise, or a large working area that is physically separated from others or even having to talk throw a door to an inmate. There is also the language barrier which I find to be the biggest barrier in corrections. The language barrier can consist of speaking a different language then the receiver of the message to using slang that they may not be familiar with. You also have the emotion barrier which could be your feelings about the message or your feelings towards the person sending the message, like anger, hostility, resentfulness, and fear. Lack of subject knowledge is also a barrier that may not let you convey or receive a message. You can tell me a thousand times how to fix an alternator but if I do not know what an alternator is you will be talking until you are blue in the face. Stress can also be a huge communication barrier for any type of organization. When a person is under immense stress they may find it very difficult to understand and process what the message is. There are many different types of barriers that can effect communication some I have listed but there is many more that are not listed.
In the correctional department of the criminal justice system I use effective communication every day. With using effective communication you come across barriers every day and must come up with strategies to over come them. I currently work grave yard and that means every time I need to talk to an offender they are behind a solid steel door with limited hearing. I have had to come up with a solution for this issue in order to have effective communication with the offender behind the door. With some of the offenders I have them write down what they need so there are no mistakes in communicating, I find that written communication is one of the most effective ways to communicate with offenders. Even with written communications I run into offenders who can not write in English or can not write at all. When communicating with offenders in the criminal justice field any thing you say can be taken wrong by the language you use to the tone of your voice. You must learn how to communicate to each individual person in a different but professional manner. With effective communication like anything else takes time to prefect and learn. In the correctional field of criminal justice system communication is the most powerful weapon you have in your tool box. We are given many different weapons to use when dealing with offenders but the tool that we can not do with out is the skill communication. The skill of communication is used in every day life in the criminal justice world from talking to writing reports, and all can affect what happens in your day whether it is positive or a negative result. To overcome effective communication barriers you must become a great active listener through effective communication skills.