The Indian Judiciary is atypical hybrid legal system in which customs, precedents and legislative law have validity of law. The Constitution of India is the supreme legal document of the country. There are various levels of judiciary in India – different types of courts, each with varying powers depending on the tier and jurisdiction bestowed upon them. They form a strict hierarchy of importance, in line with the order of the courts in which they sit, with the Supreme Court of India at the top, followed by High Courts of respective states with district judges sitting in District Courts and Magistrates of Second Class and Civil Judge (Junior Division) at the bottom. Courts hear criminal and civil cases, including disputes between individuals and the government. The Indian judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches of government according to the Constitution.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. According to the Constitution of India, the role of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court and the guardian of the Constitution. Composition
Supreme Court of India
Size of the court
As originally enacted, the Constitution of India provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and seven lower-ranking Judges—leaving it to Indian Parliament to increase this number. In the early years, a full bench of the Supreme Court sat together to hear the cases presented before them. As the work of the Court increased and cases began to accumulate, Parliament increased the number of Judges from the original eight in 1950 to eleven in 1956, fourteen in 1960, eighteen in 1978, twenty-six in 1986 and thirty one in 2008. As the number of the Judges has increased, they have sat in smaller Benches of two or three known as a c together in larger Benches of five or more (referred to as a Constitutional Bench) only when required to settle...
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