Ayub Khan Report

Topics: Ayub Khan, Pakistan, Yahya Khan Pages: 39 (12268 words) Published: March 2, 2015
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PAKISTAN ECONOMY
AYUB KHAN REGIME (1958-69)

SUBMITTED TO: SIR KHAWAJA HASHIM

SUMBITTED BY: MARIA ANWER (BB-11-01)
MAIMOONA MALIK (BB-11-22) SANA IRUM (BB-11-23) NIDA JAVED (BB-11-32) SADAF AKRAM (BB-11-41) AASIA YASMEEN (BB-11-59) ZAHRA NASIR (BB-11-66)

DATE: 29-04-13

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements
Executive Summary

1. Introduction
1.1. Early history of Ayub Khan
1.2. Military Career

2. Reforms Introduced During the Ayub Khan Regime
2.1. Political Reforms
2.1.1. PRODA and EBDO
2.1.2. The Press and Publications Ordinance
2.1.3. 1959 Basic Democracies
2.1.4. 1962 Constitution
2.1.5. Criticism against Political Reforms
2.2. Agricultural Reforms
2.2.1. Land Reforms
2.2.2. Green Revolution
2.2.3. Criticism against Agricultural Reforms
2.3. Economic Reforms
2.3.1. Industrial Reforms
2.3.2. Trade Reforms
2.3.3. Criticism against Economic Reforms
2.4. Social Reforms
2.4.1. Action against hoarding, black marketing and smuggling 2.4.2. Fixation of the prices of essential foods
2.4.3. New housing developments
2.4.4. Reform of the Marriage and Divorce Laws
2.4.5. Measures to control population
2.4.6. Health Facilities
2.4.7. Modernization of Islam
2.4.8. Criticism against Social Reforms
2.5. Educational Reforms
2.5.1. Reforms
2.5.2. Criticism against Educational Reforms
2.6. A New Capital
2.6.1. Development and purpose
2.6.2. Criticism against a new capital

2.7. Relations of Pakistan with the External World During the Ayub Khan Regime 2.7.1. Relations with India
2.7.1.1. Indus Water Treaty 1960
2.7.1.2. Indo-Pak War 1960 and the Tashkent Declaration
2.7.2. Relations with the USA
2.7.3. Relations with China
2.7.4. Relations with the Soviet Union
2.7.5. Relations with Britain and the Commonwealth
2.7.6. Ayub Khan’s Foreign Policy-Conclusion

3. Elections 1965
3.1.1. Background
3.1.2. Results

4. Political Unrest
4.1. Decade of Development
4.2. The Downfall of Ayub Khan

5. Conclusions

6. Recommendations

References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are extremely grateful to Mr. FarooqNaseemBajwa., M. IkramRabbani, Mr. Nigel Kelly, Mr. Nigel Smith and Mr. S. Akbar Zaidifor their inspiring and extremely helpful works. Our sincere appreciation to Sir KhawajaHashim for his support and excellent guidance related to the topic of our report.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In 1958, after a military coup, Ayub Khan became president; he was confirmed in office by a referendum (February, 1960). After resuming power, Ayub Khaninaugurated a system of what he called "Basic Democracies”, i.e. tiers of local government councils that also served as electoral colleges. Martial law was lifted in 1962, and a new constitution was introduced that year which gave the executive enormous powers. During his regime, Ayub Khan launched a clear unfolding of certain trends and developments, which may be described as an ideological change in Pakistan. Under him there was economic change through industrialization, improved agriculture and modest land reforms. He also introduced reforms for the social and educational sector and took various steps for the foreign policy of Pakistan which was pro-Western at the beginning but more open to all the major powers later during his regime. Ayub Khan returned to office in 1965, after defeating Mohtarma Fatimah Jinnah, sister of the founder of Pakistan. In the same year, he led the nation in a war with India, but the conflict was ended by the Tashkent Declaration of January 1966. The year 1968-9 was celebrated as the “Decade of Development”on the basis of the phenomenal economic growth rates and the Green...


References: Insistence on the One Unit Scheme
Ayub’s insistence on the One Unit Scheme (which had been introduced in October 1955) produced instant reaction among the small provinces and regional parties of Bengal
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