Topics: Reinforcement, Attribution theory, Operant conditioning Pages: 6 (2290 words) Published: April 13, 2013
Learning and perception
Perception is a cogitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings. Perception is the process by which people select, organize, interpret, and respond to information from the world around them. Social perception is the the process of combining, integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them. For example, suppose you meet your new boss. You know her as a manager and you see the way she looks and hear the words she says, and read the memos she writes. So, will she be easy to work with or will she like or else will she bring profit to the company. The process of social perception involves meeting new people presents many opportunities to combine, integrate, and interpret a great deal of information about them. Personal identity focuses on individual characteristics, such as your appearance, your personality, and your special skills and interests. social identity occurs when people identify themselves in terms of their individual characteristics and their own group memberships. They then compare themselves to other individuals and groups to help define who they are, both to themselves and others. Kelly’s attribution theory proposed that behavior can be attributed either to internal factors within a person or to external factors within the environment. Kelly attempted to pinpoint major antecedents of internal and external attributions. Kelly hypothesized that people make causal attributions after gathering information about three dimensions of behavior that is consensus, distinctiveness and consistency. These dimensions vary independently, thus forming various combination and leading to differing attributions. Consensus involves a comparison of an individual’s behavior with that of his or her peers. There is high consensus when one acts like the rest of the group and low consensus when one acts differently. Distinctiveness is determined by comparing a person’s behavior on one task with his or her behavior on other tasks. High distinctiveness means the individual has performed the task in question in a significantly different manner than he or she has performed other tasks. Low disrinctiveness means stable performance or quality from one task to another. Consistency is determined by judging if the individual’s performance on a given task is consistent over time. High consistency implies that a person performs a certain task the same, time after time. Unstable performance of a given task over time would mean low consistency. If other people act like this one (consensus is high), this person behaves in the same manner at other times (consistency is high), and that this person does not act in the same manner in other situations (distinctiveness is high), we are likely to conclude that this person’s behavior stemmed from external causes. Internal causes of behavior is based on actions for which the individual is responsible. External causes of behavior is based on situations over which the individual has no control. The internal cause would be the person’s violation of the rules, and the external cause would be the boss’s cruel and arbitrary behavior. There are three types of perceptual biases that is the fundamental attribution error, similar-to-me effect and selective perception. The fundamental attribution error refelcts one’s tendency to attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics, as opposed to situational factor. This bias causes perceivers to ignore important environmental forces that often significantly affect behavior in an organization. For example, a study of 1,420 employees of a large utility company demonstrated that supervisors tended to make more internal attribution about worker accidents than did the workers. Another common type of perceptual bias involves the tendency for people to perceive more favorably others who are like themselves than those...
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