HR - Hot rolled sheet
CR - Cold rolled sheet
HDG (CR) - Hot-dip galvanized (cold rolled base) sheet
EG (CR) - Electrogalvanized (cold rolled base) sheet
SS - Stainless steel
XLF - Microalloy quality. Strength is obtained through small quantities of alloying elements such as vanadium and niobium. Designation number (e.g. 50) is mimimum yield strength in ksi.
..B..(M) - Carbon-boron quality (Modified). Properties are for the steel as-shipped from the steel mill. Strength is achieved through heating and quenching. After quenching, the yiel strength is about 1140 MPa (165ksi)
..B.. - Carbon-boron quality. Properties are for the steel as-shipped from the steel mill. Strength is achieved through heating and quenching. After quenching, the yield strength is about 1140 MPa (165ksi)
XF - Recovery annealed quality. Strength is achieved primarily through cold work during cold rolling at the steel mill. Designation number (e.g. 120) is minimum yield strength in ksi.
M...HT - Martensitic quality. Strength is determined by carbon content.
140T - Dual phase quality. Structure contains martensite in ferrite matrix. Properties are for the steel as-shipped from the steel mill. Designation number (e.g. 140) is the minimum tensile strength in ksi.
A detailed study on materials used for automotive bumper beams has been carried out with the key objectives of identifying the key property requirements, the currently used materials and alternative candidate materials. This report presents a detailed analysis of their respective advantages, drawbacks and a comparative ranking of these materials. The best alternative material has then been identified and a suitable manufacturing process for the bumper beam (using the best alternative material) has been described.
Front and rear bumpers became standard equipment on all cars