Automatic Street Light Control System Using LDR and IC555 Timer Hafiz Saad Khaliq(11TC03)1, Mohammad Hunain Khan(11TC41)2, Syed Zulfiqar Haider Bukhari(11TC51)3, Syed Noor-ul-Hassan Bukhari(11TC63)4, Ahmad Faheem Alam(11TC10)5,Javed Iqbal(11TC20)6 Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University College of Engineering & Technology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, Faheemalam2012@gmail.com5, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract— This project Automatic Street Light Control System aims at designing and executing the advanced development in embedded systems for energy saving of street lights by using light dependent resistor (LDR). Nowadays, human has become too busy and he is unable to find time even to switch the lights on or off. This can be seen more effectively in the case of street lights. The present system is like, the street lights will be switched on in the evening before the sun sets and they are switched off the next day morning after there is sufficient light on the roads. But the actual timing for these street lights to be switched on are when there is absolute darkness on the roads. This project gives the best solution for electrical power wastage. Also the manual operation of lighting system is completely eliminated. In our project we are using LDR, which varies according to the amount of light falling on its surface; this gives an indication for us whether it is a day/night time. This project can be configured by using transistors, CMOS ICs and IC 555. Here, we implement this project by using IC 555. The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip flop element. Derivative provide up to four timing circuits in one package. Also we are using relay. A relay is an electrically controllable switch widely used in industrial controls, automobiles and appliances. The relay allows the isolation of two separate sections of a system with two different voltage sources i.e., a small amount of voltage/current on one side can handle a large amount of voltage/current on the other side but there is no chance that these two voltages mix up. We are using Lightemitting diodes (LEDs) in this project instead of a bulb. Lightemitting diodes are elements for light signalization in electronics. By using this project as the basic principle we can design centralized intelligent system for the perfect usage of streetlights in any place. Keywords— Light Dependent Resistor(LDR), Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Integrated Circuits (CMOS ICs), Light Emitting Diodes ( LEDs)
darkness. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and expensive responsibilities of a city. Lighting can account for 10-38% of the total energy bill in typical cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for economic and social stability. Inefficient lighting wastes significant financial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions. Energy efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs dramatically (often by 25-60%). The main consideration in the present field technologies are Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness. Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent systems. Power saving is the main consideration forever as the sources of the power are getting diminished due to various reasons. The main aim of this project is Automatic Street power saving system with LDR this is to save the power. We want to save power automatically instead of doing manual. So it’s easy to cost effectiveness. This saved power can be used in some other cases. So in villages, towns etc. we can design intelligent...
References: Figure 7: Circuit Diagram by using 555 timer IC
We explain the circuit diagram implemented by using 555 timers IC. First, we give AC power 220 or 230V to a transformer which gives us 12V because we are using a step down transformer, after that this AC voltage pass through a full-wave bridge rectifier which convert AC voltage to DC voltage. We used rectifier because we need DC voltage not AC to run this project. The output of the full-wave rectifier will be a rippled DC voltage. In order to obtain a constant DC output voltage, a capacitor is connected across the output of the full-wave rectifier. In this project, we are going to switch off the street lights automatically as the day starts. The duration of the day differs from season to season, accordingly our module works based upon the light intensity so as to when to start or stop. For this we are using Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as the light sensor, which communicates with the required information to the 555 timer IC. Here we are using 555 timers IC, LDR and relay. By using the LDR we can operate the lights, so when the light is available then it will be in the OFF state and when it is dark then the light will be in ON state, it means LDR is inversely proportional to light. When the light falls on the LDR its resistance is very high, so it remains in an OFF state and when the darkness appears its resistance is immediately falls and its work in an ON state and communicates with the required information to the 555 timer IC. When the LDR is in the ON state then its output pass to 555 timers IC. In between this we are using a potentiometer which adjusts the light intensity on which lights ON or OFF. When the timer is in the quiescent state, the internal transistor is conducting and represents a short circuit across timing capacitor C. The level of the output terminal in this state is low. In practical circuits voltage at pin2 is kept above the trigger point by a resistor connected to VCC. When a negative going trigger pulse on pin-2 is applied, it causes the potential at this point to fall below 1/3VCC and thus the trigger comparator RESETs the flip-flop. Now, internal transistor is cut-off and thus the output level of the IC goes high. Due to this external transistor work and output goes to relay which is in the normally open state but when the output
     
Radhi Priyasree, Rafiya Kauser.H, Vinitha.E, Gangatharan.N ,“ Automatic Street Light Intensity Control and Road Safety Module Using Embedded System”,Coimbatore Institute of Information Technology, ISBN 978-1-4675-2248-9, 2012. http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.com/2012/01/how-tomake-light-activated-day-night.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/555_timer_IC http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_6/chpt_8/1.html http://www.reuk.co.uk/Light-Dependent-Resistor.html http://www.tianbo-relay.com/relaysInfo.asp M.A.Wazad, N. Nafis, M.T.Islam, A.S.Sayem, “Design and Fabrication of Automatic Street Light Control System”, Engineering eTransaction (ISSN 1823-6379), Vol- 5, No. 1, June 2010, pp 31.
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