Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Theories of Vygotsky

Good Essays
ABSTRACT
Research over the past decade has acknowledged the impacts of characteristics and life-functioning for individuals on the autism spectrum. Models of support or interventions strategies have been researched but little, or limited practical or resourced models appeared as accessible for families of older youth.
The intention of this research paper was to investigate a specific activity group for youth on the autism spectrum. The group runs concurrently with a parent group and is funded through a respite funding provision.
The research identified three main themes that delineate the activity group as relationships, successes and issues. Using a mixed methods design, eighteen individuals were surveyed to ascertain their opinions on the activity group and four individuals with varying roles in the group were interviewed to discover what the participant considered were the best aspects of the group for them, why the group worked, what might change and if they had any suggestions for group activity or structure.
The sociocultural theory of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) and the work of psychologist Dr Tony Attwood were also examined to establish links between theory and practice in the understanding of the social implications of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

INTRODUCTION - overview and understanding of ASD

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), while not a specific diagnostic category, describes a spectrum or range of cognitive and communicative abilities with consequential patterns of behaviour in areas of social interaction, communication, interests and activities within the range of Pervasive Developmental Disorders, which include Autism and Asperger syndrome. ASD impacts across the lifespan on an individual’s life functioning. (Attwood, 2007). It is estimated that Autism occurs in approximately 1-2 individuals in every 1000 people, and Aspergers syndrome in [at least] 1 individual in every 500 people. Interestingly, there are four times as many males as females

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    ‘Autism was first described by the American Leo Kanner in 1943’ (Hodder Arnold., 2002.,) Students with Autism are known to suffer from social problems and find it hard to understand different social situations so would need consistency and routine in their lives along with extensive group exercises.…

    • 2028 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Society's View on Autism

    • 1758 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Autism is known as a complex developmental disability. Experts believe that autism presents itself during the first three years of a person's life. The condition is the result of a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function, affecting development of the person's communication and social interaction skills. People with autism have issues with non-verbal communication, a wide range of social interactions, and activities that include an element of play or banter. “Today, it is estimated that one in every 110 children is diagnosed with autism, making it more common than childhood cancer, juvenile diabetes and pediatric AIDS combined” (What is Autism 2011). “Studies suggest boys are more likely than girls to develop autism and receive the diagnosis three to four times more frequently. People who have autism often have delayed language development.” (Autism Fact Sheet 2011) They usually have trouble with social interactions. Another characteristic of autism is what some people describe as “sensory overload”: Sounds seem louder, lights brighter, or smells stronger. Not everybody with autism has the exact same symptoms. Some people may have autism that is mild, while others may have autism that is more severe.…

    • 1758 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Appendix F Psy/270

    • 1395 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Children with autism are unresponsive to others, uncommunicative, repetitive, and rigid their symptoms usually appear before the age of three. An autistic individual will have difficulty sustaining employment, accomplishing household responsibilities, and leading independent lives. Furthermore, they express having problems displaying closeness and empathy and have limited interests and activities. The characteristics seem to be pronounced as indifferent in physical care and affectionate expressive interest in those who are taking care of them. Verbal communication and language impairments and inability…

    • 1395 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Best Essays

    Outline Autism

    • 432 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Cohen, S. (2006). Targeting autism : what we know, don 't know, and can do to help young children with autism spectrum disorders / Shirley Cohen. Berkeley : University of California Press, c2006.…

    • 432 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Good Essays

    Autism spectrum condition affects a range of different individuals and is a spectrum condition and affects people in a number of different ways. It is important when supporting an individual with autism to identify and recognise each individuals’ abilities – what they can do successfully, needs – what the individual needs support with, strengths and gifts – what the individual is good at, what they have a real talent in, and interests – what is motivating for the person.…

    • 5611 Words
    • 23 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Autism and Client Group

    • 539 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Autism belongs to a collection of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorder. Autism is defined as a ‘lifelong condition that impinges on how an individual communicates with and relates to others’ (Gray, 2007). Most of the symptoms are seen from the age of 2 to 3 years when being noticed by the health care professionals and diagnosed (Aylott, 2000). For instance, repetitive behaviours, communication problems, difficulties with social interaction, being over under sensitive to sight, sound, smell, touch and test. Numbers of diagnosed cases have increased in the last 2 decades which may be due to health professionals getting better at diagnosing the cases at an early stage (NHS choice, 2011). There are over 50,000 people in UK with autism and including the families, autism touches the life of over 2,000,000 people everyday (National Autistic Society, 2011). In England estimated figures show that about 1 in 100 children have autism. Boys are three to four times more likely to develop autism than girls (Kay, 2007).…

    • 539 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    psy/270 appendix f

    • 694 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Sociocultural models of autism lack research support. This theory describes autism as being developed through parental or caretaker responses to the child that are rejecting the child, rigid and not socially stable. This theory has been rejected.…

    • 694 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Best Essays

    Life-Span Development

    • 3936 Words
    • 16 Pages

    Autism is a “lifelong, neurobiological condition that significantly affects how a person perceives the world, interacts with other people and communication” (What is Autism, 2003). Autism is said to cause significant impairments in areas including, but not limited to language and cognitive development, communication processes, social interaction, sensory processing, nutrition, agility and psychological well-being. Research has revealed that while the cause of Autism is unclear it is estimated that more that 90% of the cause is due to genetics, (Klauck, 2006) “no known psychological factors in the development of the child have been shown to cause autism” (What is Autism, 2003).…

    • 3936 Words
    • 16 Pages
    Best Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    For more than 40 years Children with Autism typically have employed developing children and adults as models of appropriate behavior, and other developmental disabilities. The effectiveness of peers, adults, and siblings have had positive effects.…

    • 248 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Qrb 501 Final Paper

    • 621 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Behavioral therapy, communication training, parent training, and community integration are all helpful autism treatments (Comer, 2005). All of these treatments are geared towards helping children with autism communicate and behave in a more positive way.…

    • 621 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Parents who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) should define their parenting technique more so than parents of neurotypical children. Children with ASD have many different needs. For example, an ASD child has great difficulties with their social skills; this deficiency causes them not to have meaningful social interactions. Their interests are narrow, and it dominates the child's life (Volkmar & Klin, 2000, as cited in Sansosti & Powell-Smith, 2006).…

    • 2019 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Autism and Psychology

    • 2088 Words
    • 9 Pages

    "Man is by nature a social animal; an individual who is unsocial naturally and not accidentally is either beneath our notice or more than human..."(Aristotle, 328 B.C. in Aronson, 1995). We have been designed from birth to need and trust and socialize with one another in various ways. Yet, why is it so difficult for some but not for others. I have a four year old Autistic son that also has severe developmental delays due to prematurity and birthing complications. There are days that he gets frustrated at not even being able to communicate basic needs or just wants to be in his own world, left to his own device. That for anyone is rough, but knowing I am his mother makes it worse. Social interaction is such an important part of growing as not only a human being, but also for the brain. Even from the beginning of time man has leaned on the premise of needing that companionship and contact with the world around them.…

    • 2088 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Psychoeducation

    • 2851 Words
    • 12 Pages

    Banach, M., Iudice, J., Conway, L., & Couse, L.J. (2010). Family support and empowerment: Post autism diagnosis support group for parents. Social Work with Groups, 33(1), 69 – 83.…

    • 2851 Words
    • 12 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Dempsey, I. & Foreman, P. (2001). A review of educational approaches for individuals with autism. International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, Special Issue 48(1), 103-116.…

    • 53253 Words
    • 214 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    • 4188 Words
    • 17 Pages

    Jones, G., English, A., Guldberg, K., Jordan, R., Richardson, P. & Waltz, M., (2008). Educational provision for children and young people with autism spectrum disorders living in England: A review of current practice, issues and challenges, Autism Education Trust. Jones, G. & Guldberg…

    • 4188 Words
    • 17 Pages
    Powerful Essays