11-1 Fraudulent financial reporting is an intentional misstatement or omission of amounts or disclosures with the intent to deceive users. Two examples of fraudulent financial reporting are accelerating the timing of recording sales revenue to increased reported sales and earnings, and recording expenses as fixed assets to increase earnings.
11-2 Misappropriation of assets is fraud that involves theft of an entity’s assets. Two examples are an accounts payable clerk issuing payments to a fictitious company controlled by the clerk, and a sales clerk failing to record a sale and pocketing the cash receipts.
11-3 Fraudulent financial reporting is an intentional misstatement or omission of amounts or disclosures with the intent to deceive users, while misappropriation of assets is fraud that involves theft of an entity’s assets. Frauds involving financial reporting are usually larger than frauds involving misappropriation of assets, usually involve top management, and do not directly involve theft of company assets.
11-4 The three conditions of fraud referred to as the “fraud triangle” are (1) Incentives/Pressures; (2) Opportunities; and (3) Attitudes/Rationalization. Incentives/Pressures are incentives of management or other employees to commit fraud. Opportunities are circumstances that allow management or employees to commit fraud. Attitudes/Rationalization are indications that an attitude, character, or set of ethical values exist that allow management or employees to commit a dishonest act or they are in an environment that imposes sufficient pressure that causes them to rationalize committing a dishonest act.
11-5 The following are example of risk factors for fraudulent financial reporting for each of the three fraud conditions:
Incentives/Pressures - The company is under pressure to meet debt covenants or obtain additional financing.
Opportunities – Ineffective oversight of financial reporting by the