discuss the symptoms of four types of psychological disorders (1.1) identify and evaluate key research in the study of these psychological disorders (2.1) Atypical Disorders - Psychological Disorders
Within this essay i will be looking into four different types of psychological disorders and i will be looking into the credible research around each, exploring the different views that esteemed psychologists have expressed towards phobic disorder within anxiety disorders, mood disorders and obssessive compulsive disorders; aswell as fringing upon personality disorders. It is interesting to note the view of what is essentially atypical behaiour, and what classes as a psychological disorder, and how it has evolved through the ages. In the times of our ancient cultures, such as that of the ancient greeks, egyptians and the hebrews; it was believed that when someone expressed a behavour that was not deemed the normal, that they were possessed, or it was the workings of angry gods or evil spirits. It has to be appreciated these were in times where people believed that everything revolved around deities and in some cultures it was believed that many things were the results of magic, alchemy or religious damnation; as time has gone on however, and study of the mind has insued, views have gone far from the superstitious reasonings of our forefathers. (Butcher, N. James, Mineka, Susan, Hooley, M. Jill , Abnormal Psychology (15th ed) pg 31 Demonology, gods and magic) Every culture throughout the ages has had its norms of socieity, such as it would have been deemed abnormal for men to wear earrings 50 years ago in our own culture, and now it is an accepted social practice for men, what is typical and what is abnormal changes with soceities acceptances and rejections. A more stark contrast is through similar devices Hitler made the jews abnormal through his practices in order to justify controlling and silencing them, which eventually led to the holocaust; thats the power of a focal group on the acceptances of what is deemed normal and abnormal in any given society. (Szask, 1971) The first apsect of the abnormal psychological world i am going to look at it phobic disorders which can stem from anxiety disorder, and as an intitial i am going to be looking at simple phobias as a basis. to begin it is important to draw out that simple phobias are quite non complex as a rule, and alot less diruptive of everyday life when compared with agoraphobia or social phobias; which can essentially withhold you from day to day life if they become advanced enough. Phobic disorders are basically irrational fears of a object or thing, situation that is usually quite specific in nature, it is usually something the person knows can cause them no harm, hoever they will still go out of there way to avoid the said object, or situation at all costs, ion most cases. DSM-IV-TR basically categorises all phobias as either specific, social or agoraphobic. Arachnophobia is one that most have heard of, and which is quite common, which is an irrational fear of spiders, there are other simple phobias such as Astraphobia, which is the fear of storms, nycotophobia and cynophobia which is the fear of darks and the latter the fear of the dark; these are specific phobias. an interesting point is that someone that has a phobia like arachnophobia for instance, may just not be able to touch a spider, where as another person with arachnophobia may not be able to even look at a depiction of a spider, so there is a very varried sliding scale on how it a phobia can be tailored based on an individual and each persons phobia, even if it is the same can be very diverse The physical symptoms that someone can experience in reaction to a phobia are panic attacks, tacycaridia (fast breathing), sweating and trembling, dry mouth, ringing in your ears among many others. The list is vast. the psychological symptoms are fear of dying, the fear of losing control, a feeling of dread as...
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