Attachment Theory by John Bowlby and Mary Ainworth

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ATTACHMENT THEORY – JOHN BOWLBY AND MARY AINSWORTH

Psychologist John Bowlby believed that childhood development depended upon a child’s ability to form a good strong relationship with at least one caregiver, this would usually be the parents. Bowlby’s studies led him to believe that a strong attachment provides the necessary sense of security but he found that those without such relationships in place were fearful and less willing to learn from new experiences unlike those who have strong parental relationships to encourage new and adventurous experiences. Mary Ainsworth developed many of the ideas set out by Bowlby in her studies. She identified the existence of what she calls “attachment behaviour” which demonstrated by insecure children hoping to establish or re-establish and attachment to absent parents. Mary Ainsworth studied a broad range of children from good strong attachments to very weak attachments.

The children were separated from their parents and their reactions were observed, the children with strong attachments stayed calm and seemed secure enough to know that their parents would be back soon, whereas the children with the weaker attachments would be insecure and cry and show signs of distress until their parents returned. Mary Ainsworth agrees with John Bowlby’s theories that a good strong healthy attachment is vital for the individuals physical development.
(psychologistworld.com)

JEAN PIAGET – COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Jean Piaget became interested with the reasons children gave for their wrong answers on questions that required logical thinking. He believed that these wrong answers revealed the differences between the think of adults and children. He was the first psychologist to make studies of cognitive development. His theories of intellectual child development include observational studies, intelligence in children and a series of simple test to reveal different intellectual abilities.

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