Atomic Energy

Topics: Nuclear power, Uranium, Nuclear fission Pages: 46 (15195 words) Published: April 17, 2013
Nuclear power
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Atomic Power" redirects here. For the film, see Atomic Power (film). This article is about the power source. For nation states that are nuclear powers, see List of states with nuclear weapons.

The Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, a boiling water reactor. The reactors are located inside the rectangular containment buildings towards the front of the cooling towers.

Three nuclear-powered American warships, (top to bottom) nuclear cruisersUSS Bainbridge and USS Long Beach withUSS Enterprise the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier in 1964. Crew members are spelling out Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc2 on the flight deck.

The Russian nuclear-powered icebreakerNS Yamal on a 1994 joint expedition with theNSF. Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provided about 5.7% of the world's energyand 13% of the world's electricity, in 2012.[1] In 2013, the IAEA report that there are 437 operational nuclear power reactors (although not all are producing electricity[2]),[3] in 31 countries.[4] In addition, there are approximately 140 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion in operation, powered by some 180 reactors.[5][6][7] There is an ongoing debate about the use of nuclear energy.[8][9][10] Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association, the IAEA andEnvironmentalists for Nuclear Energy contend that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions.[11] Opponents, such as Greenpeace International and NIRS, believe that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment.[12][13][14] Nuclear power plant accidents include the Chernobyl disaster (1986), Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011), and the Three Mile Island accident(1979).[15] There have also been some nuclear-powered submarine mishaps.[15][16][17] Research into safety improvements is continuing[18] and nuclear fusion, believed to be safer, may be used in the future. As of 2012, according to the IAEA, worldwide there were 68 civil nuclear power reactors under construction in 15 countries.[3] In the US the licenses of almost half its reactors have been extended to 60 years,[19] and plans to build another dozen are under serious consideration.[20] However, Japan's 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster prompted a rethink of nuclear energy policy in many countries.[21] Germany decided to close all its reactors by 2022, and Italy has banned nuclear power.[21] Following Fukushima, the International Energy Agency halved its estimate of additional nuclear generating capacity to be built by 2035.[22] Contents  [hide]  * 1 Use * 1.1 Use in space * 2 History * 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Early years * 2.3 Development * 3 Nuclear power plant * 4 Life cycle * 4.1 Conventional fuel resources * 4.1.1 Breeding * 4.1.2 Fusion * 4.2 Solid waste * 4.2.1 High-level radioactive waste * 4.2.2 Low-level radioactive waste * 4.2.3 Comparing radioactive waste to industrial toxic waste * 4.2.4 Waste disposal * 4.3 Reprocessing * 4.3.1 Depleted uranium * 5 Economics * 6 Accidents and safety, the human and financial costs * 7 Nuclear proliferation * 8 Environmental issues * 8.1 Climate change * 9 Nuclear decommissioning * 10 Debate on nuclear power * 11 Comparison with renewable energy * 12 Nuclear power organizations * 12.1 Against * 12.2 Supportive * 13 Nuclear renaissance * 14 Future of the industry * 14.1 Nuclear phase out * 14.2 Advanced concepts * 14.3 Nuclear fusion * 15 See also * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links| -------------------------------------------------


Historical and projected world energy use by energy source, 1990-2035, Source: International Energy Outlook 2011, EIA....

References: 1. ^ Key World Energy Statistics 2012 (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
4. ^ a b "World Nuclear Power Reactors 2007-08 and Uranium Requirements". World Nuclear Association. 2008-06-09. Archived from the original on March 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
9. ^ a b James J. MacKenzie. Review of The Nuclear Power Controversy by Arthur W. Murphy The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1977), pp. 467-468.
17. ^ a b c d Johnston, Robert (September 23, 2007). "Deadliest radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties". Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events.
18. ^ a b c David Baurac (2002). "Passively safe reactors rely on nature to keep them cool". Logos (Argonne National Laboratory) 20 (1). Retrieved 2012-07-25.
20. ^ a b Matthew L. Wald (December 7, 2010). Nuclear ‘Renaissance’ Is Short on Largess The New York Times.
21. ^ a b Sylvia Westall and Fredrik Dahl (June 24, 2011). "IAEA Head Sees Wide Support for Stricter Nuclear Plant Safety". Scientific American.
23. ^ Key World Energy Statistics 2012 (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
26. ^ a b Trevor Findlay (2010). The Future of Nuclear Energy to 2030 and its Implications for Safety, Security and Nonproliferation: Overview, The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, pp. 10-11.
27. ^ Mycle Schneider, Steve Thomas, Antony Froggatt, and Doug Koplow (August 2009). The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009 Commissioned by German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, p. 5.
29. ^ "Summary status for the US". Energy Information Administration. 2010-01-21. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
30. ^ Eleanor Beardsley (2006). "France Presses Ahead with Nuclear Power". NPR. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
31. ^ "Gross electricity generation, by fuel used in power-stations". Eurostat. 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
38. ^ "Otto Hahn, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1944". Retrieved 2007-11-01.
43. ^ "Reactors Designed by Argonne National Laboratory: Fast Reactor Technology". U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory. 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
45. ^ "STR (Submarine Thermal Reactor) in "Reactors Designed by Argonne National Laboratory: Light Water Reactor Technology Development"". U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory. 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-25.
46. ^ a b Kragh, Helge (1999). Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 286. ISBN 0-691-09552-3.
49. ^ "This Day in Quotes: SEPTEMBER 16 - Too cheap to meter: the great nuclear quote debate". This day in quotes. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-16.
50. ^ Pfau, Richard (1984) No Sacrifice Too Great: The Life of Lewis L. Strauss University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, p. 187, ISBN 978-0-8139-1038-3
52. ^ "On This Day: October 17". BBC News. 1956-10-17. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
54. ^ McKeown, William (2003). Idaho Falls: The Untold Story of America 's First Nuclear Accident. Toronto: ECW Press.ISBN 978-1-55022-562-4.
59. ^ Paula Garb. Review of Critical Masses, Journal of Political Ecology, Vol 6, 1999.
60. ^ Rüdig, Wolfgang, ed. (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy. Detroit, MI: Longman Current Affairs. ISBN 0-8103-9000-0.[verification needed]
62. ^ Stephen Mills and Roger Williams (1986). Public Acceptance of New Technologies Routledge, pp. 375-376.
63. ^ Robert Gottlieb (2005). Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement, Revised Edition, Island Press, USA, p. 237.
64. ^ Jim Falk (1982). Global Fission: The Battle Over Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press, pp. 95-96.
65. ^ a b Walker, J. Samuel (2004). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press), pp. 10-11.
66. ^ a b Herbert P. Kitschelt. Political Opportunity and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four DemocraciesBritish Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1986, p. 57.
67. ^ a b Herbert P. Kitschelt. Political Opportunity and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four DemocraciesBritish Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1986, p. 71.
69. ^ Lutz Mez, Mycle Schneider and Steve Thomas (Eds.) (2009). International Perspectives of Energy Policy and the Role of Nuclear Power, Multi-Science Publishing Co. Ltd, p. 279.
71. ^ Rüdig, Wolfgang, ed. (1990). Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy. Detroit, MI: Longman Current Affairs. p. 1. ISBN 0-8103-9000-0.
72. ^ "The Political Economy of Nuclear Energy in the United States" (PDF). Social Policy. The Brookings Institution. 2004. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
76. ^ "Italy puts one year moratorium on nuclear". 2011-03-13.
77. ^ "Italy nuclear: Berlusconi accepts referendum blow".BBC News. 2011-06-14.
80. ^ "Uranium resources sufficient to meet projected nuclear energy requirements long into the future". Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). June 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
81. ^ NEA, IAEA: Uranium 2007 – Resources, Production and Demand. OECD Publishing, June 10, 2008, ISBN 978-92-64-04766-2.
86. ^ a b "Waste Management in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle".Information and Issue Briefs. World Nuclear Association. 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
87. ^ John McCarthy (2006). "Facts From Cohen and Others".Progress and its Sustainability. Stanford. Retrieved 2006-11-09. Citing Breeder reactors: A renewable energy source,American Journal of Physics, vol. 51, (1), Jan. 1983.
88. ^ "Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors". Information and Issue Briefs. World Nuclear Association. 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
98. ^ M. I. Ojovan, W.E. Lee. An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 315pp. (2005).
99. ^ Benjamin K. Sovacool (2011). Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power: A Critical Global Assessment of Atomic Energy, World Scientific, p. 141.
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