The 2nd Kurdistan Conference on Biological Sciences
J. Duhok Univ. Vol.12, No.1 (Special Issue), Pp 233-239, 2009
University of Duhok 6-8 May, 2008
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PROPOLIS COLLECTED IN DIFFERENT
REGIONS OF SULAIMANI PROVINCE-KURDISTAN REGION/IRAQ
HASTYAR H. NAJMADEEN and FARHAD A. KH. K AKAMAND
Dept of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Iraq (Accepted for publication: November 19, 2008)
The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of (28%) ethanolic extract propolis (EEP) of [Bazian, Pshdar, Sharbazher, Khormal, Kanakawa and Sulaimani (city center)] against (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans). Two methods were employed for propolis activity evaluation; firstly by agar well diffusion method using 40µl of propolis extracts and ethanol 70% as the solvent control per well against tested bacteria and fungus and more commonly used antibiotics were used in comparison to propolis samples. The second method was employed by measuring Minimal Inhibitory Concentration & Minimal Bactericidal; Fungicidal Concentrations (MIC, MBC & MFC) using two fold dilution method for propolis extracts and ethanol 70% as a solvent control in serial concentrations. The Results exhibited that propolis is more efficient than some antibiotic discs. The most sensitive bacteria against (EEP) with mean inhibitory diameters (22-26) mm was S. epidermidis followed by S. aerues and C. albicans (15-22) mm. Tested Gram negative bacteria have lowest inhibitory zones (7-9) mm. Results of MIC & MBC showed S. aureus with (0.1750.7mg/ml) followed by S. epidermidis & C. albicans with (0.7-1.4mg/ml). Among tested Gram negative bacteria, all (EEP) samples showed relatively strong inhibitory action on P. mirabilis (14mg/ml) and weak inhibitory action on P. aerugenosa & K. pneumoniae (28mg/ml) of two of propolis samples. No activity was noticed of solvent control ethanol (70%) neither in the tubes nor in the wells for all tested bacteria and fungus.
ropolis(bee glue)is a resinous substance
produced by honeybees. The bees mix exudates
collected from plants with waxes and glandular
secretions to synthesize the substance which is used
for the construction and adaptation of their hives(1, 2).
Bees use propolis as a ‘chemical weapon’ against
pathogenic microorganisms, and it has been used by
humans as a remedy in flok medicine for its health
properties as early in Egypt 3000 BC(1, 3, 4),ancient
Greeks and Romans, etc.(5, 4, 6) and recently in
modern medicine (7).
It is still used for the treatment of various diseases
(diabetes, heart disease and keratitis). It is also used in
the production of health food and(biocosmotics) which
increase formation of antibodies when fed together
with Escherichia coli in rat animal (8, 2, 3, and 5).
Scientific research has revealed its very wide
spectrum of effects, including (antibacterial, antifungal,
anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antitumor
agents, wound healing promoters and its use as
anesthetic agent(1, 5,9,10,11,12,13,14). It can cure
minor ulcers in the mouth, angina, as well as skin
infections,therapy of mastitis caused by microorganisms
resistant to antibiotics (8).
Biological properties and chemical compositions
of propolis may vary according to different plant
sources that bees could visit, collecting time and
geographic location (1, 2, 9, 10, and 12). Chemical
analysis revealed that propolis contains more than
200 constitutes (12, 13). Among them are phenolic
compounds predominant including flavonoids as a
major component, cinnamic acids derivatives (3, 12,
13), amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins like (B1,
B2, B6, C, E),...
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