AP Biology 1st period
Most athletic energy drinks contain vitamins. Vitamins are organic molecules that mainly function as catalysts for reactions within the body. Among these vitamins the B-vitamin is very abundant in energy drinks and is very important to the body.
The B-vitamin family contains diverse members necessary for healthy functioning of almost all body processes. The actions of the B vitamins cover everything from energy production in the body, to maintaining blood vessels to hormone metabolism. Most B vitamins work together and, in many cases, provide the greatest benefit when supplemented together in the correct ratios.
The B vitamins act as coenzymes, compounds that unite with a protein component called an apoenzyme to form an active enzyme. The enzyme then acts as a catalyst in the chemical reactions that transfer energy from the energy drinks to the body. These vitamins are essential for the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose, which provides us energy, the breakdown of fats and proteins, which aids the normal functioning of the nervous system, muscle tone in the stomach and intestinal tract, and healthy skin, hair, and eyes
The 20-2500 mitochondria per cell produce the majority of the body's energy (ATP) by means of an intricate and complex process called cellular respiration. The production of ATP within the mitochondria involves two metabolic cycles called the "Krebs" or "citric acid" cycle, and the oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain.
Vitamin B1(thiamine) is a coenzyme used in removing CO2 from various organic compounds. B2(riboflavin) is a component of FAD (or FADH2), one of the chemicals used to transport electrons from the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain. Vitamin B3(niacin) is a component of NAD+ (or NADH) which is the major transporter of electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain. Without enough of these