Athens in the Time of Pericles - Religion Death and Burial

Topics: Athens, Athena, Parthenon Pages: 12 (4269 words) Published: June 19, 2013
Athens in the Time of Pericles
Religion, Death and Burial
Pericles lived from 495-429 BC. During this time, religion was inextricably linked with Athenian society. It contributed to a lot of Athenian culture and the many aspects of religion were depicted through buildings, artworks, festivals and every day rituals. Gods and Goddesses In Greek mythology there were 12 main gods, that were prayed to and worshipped by the Athenians. It was said they lived on top of Mount Olympus. They resembled human form and through their stories of love, war and passion they were also viewed to have human feelings. The Greeks believed that the gods were immortal. The gods were associated with three main domains, Heaven, sea and earth. The 12 gods were: God/Goddess name Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Demeter Hephaestus Hera (Queen of heaven and wife of Zeus) Hermes (Messenger of the Gods) Hestia Poseidon Zeus (Lord of the Gods, Spiritual father of the Gods and the people) Heaven Heaven Heaven Heaven Earth Heaven Heaven Heaven Heaven Sea Heaven Domain Specialty Love, romance and beauty Sun, light, medicine, poetry and music War Hunting, the forest, wildlife, childbirth and the moon Agriculture Fire Marriage and magic Business Home and Homelife The sea, horses and earthquakes The sky.

Dio Crysostomos (97 A.D) declared the image of Zeus so powerful that, "If a man, with a heavy heart from grief and sorrow in life, will stand in front of the statue, he will forget all these." Athena (Patron goddess of Athens and daughter of Zeus) Heaven War, wisdom and crafts.

Evidence of Athena being the patron goddess is the Athenian silver tetradrachm from 454-404 BC. Like on the coin, she’s generally depicted wearing a helmet and shown with an owl or olive tree as they were sacred to her. According to mythology, she gifted the olive tree to the city of Athens. Tara Heaslip Wednesday, 19 June 2013 6:12:56 PM Australian Eastern Standard Time

Attica. Athens, c. 454-404 BC. Silver "old-style" tetradrachm. Head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet ornamented with olive leaves / Owl standing right, olive sprig and crescent moon behind. Apart from the main 12 gods and goddesses there were many others that were just as popular and worshipped just as much, for example, Dionysus. There is much evidence of the belief in these gods such as paintings, artworks and inscriptions, for example, a vase that has been dated back to 470-460 BC which depicts Zeus.

Amphora, 470-460 B.C. This vase depicts Zeus aiming a lightening bolt at a giant with an eagle perched on his hand. Beliefs, practices and organisations Religion was a fundamental aspect of Greek life and the Athenian people incorporated it into their everyday lives as they believed their lives were dependent on the gods. It was believed that gods could interfere in the lives of men, so prayer was used by the people, so the gods would take favour and act kindly towards them. Xenophon said “The gods know everything and they give forewarnings to anyone they choose through sacrifices, omens, voices and dreams.” The Athenians used sacrifices, temples and prayers to honor particular gods and goddesses. They believed in the three ‘Fates,’ Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. Clotho was the youngest, she spun the thread of destiny with a distaff and determined the time of birth of an individual. Lachesis measured the thread length to determine the length of life and Atropos cut the thread of life, determining the time of death. Worship of the gods consisted of rituals and ceremonies. The relationship between human beings and deities was based on the concept of exchange; Gods and goddesses were expected to answer prayers and humans were expected to give gifts and sacrifices.

Tara Heaslip

Wednesday, 19 June 2013 6:12:56 PM Australian Eastern Standard Time

Evidence of the sacrifices made by the Athenians came from Lysias (around 400 BC) who stated, “By performing the proper sacrifices, our ancestors left our city...

Bibliography: • Academic.reed.edu (n.d.) Parthenon. [online] Available at: http://academic.reed.edu/ humanities/110tech/parthenon.html [Accessed: 22 April 2013]. • Ancientresource.com (2003) Ancient Resource: Athens Greece Coins for Sale-Athena and the Athenian Owl. [online] Available at: http://www.ancientresource.com/lots/greek/ coins_athens.html [Accessed: 15 April 2013]. • Atheism.about.com (n.d.) Method of Sacrifice in Ancient Greece: Images of Ancient Greek Religion & Mythology. [online] Available at: http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/ religion/blgrk_rituals08.htm [Accessed: 15 April 2013]. • Athens-greece-guide.com (n.d.) Acropolis of Athens and the world famous Parthenon. [online] Available at: http://www.athens-greece-guide.com/acropolis.htm [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Bible-history.com (1893) Funerary Scene - Images of Ancient Vases (Greek Arts at Bible History Online). [online] Available at: http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Greek+Arts/Vases/ Funerary+Scene [Accessed: 20 May 2013]. • Earlyworldhistory.blogspot.com.au (2012) Ancient World History: Panathenaic Festival. [online] Available at: http://earlyworldhistory.blogspot.com.au/2012/02/panathenaicfestival.html [Accessed: 13 May 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (1874) Ancient Greek funeral and burial practices - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ancient_Greek_funeral_and_burial_practices [Accessed: 12 May 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (1868) Pericles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pericles [Accessed: 16 May 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (2009) Votive offering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Votive_offering [Accessed: 11 May 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (1892) Pythia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythia [Accessed: 22 April 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (2004) Dionysia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysia [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (n.d.) Eleusinian Mysteries - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleusinian_Mysteries [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (2007) File:Cavalcade west frieze Parthenon BM.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Cavalcade_west_frieze_Parthenon_BM.jpg [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (1868) Parthenon Frieze - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon_Frieze [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Google.com.au (n.d.) Google Image Result for http://images.travelpod.com/tripwow/ photos/ta-0099-4172-842e/greek-gods-athens-greece%2B1152_12743689779tpfil02aw-1174.jpg. [online] Available at: http://www.google.com.au/imgres?q=athens +gods&safe=active&sa=X&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=607&tbm=isch&tbnid=86Oi3gxFEclN8 M:&imgrefurl=http://tripwow.tripadvisor.com/slideshow-photo/greek-gods-athensgreece.html%3Fsid%3D10043762%26fid%3Dupload_12743689779tpfil02aw-1174&docid=J2t8ck-ynGaJzM&imgurl=http://images.travelpod.com/tripwow/ photos/ta-0099-4172-842e/greek-gods-athens-greece%252B1152_12743689779tpfil02aw-1174.jpg&w=1024&h=768&ei=pAyKUY3OI4jUkwWLwYC4CQ&zoom=1&ved=1 t:3588,r:5,s:0,i: 97&iact=rc&dur=2&page=1&tbnh=176&tbnw=249&start=0&ndsp=16&tx=94&ty=74 [Accessed: 8 May 2013].
Tara Heaslip
Wednesday, 19 June 2013 6:12:56 PM Australian Eastern Standard Time
• Greek-gods.info (2005) Fates (Moirae)-the Spinners of the Thread of Life. [online] Available at: http://www.greek-gods.info/ancient-greek-gods/fates/ [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • I72.photobucket.com (n.d.) Untitled. [online] Available at: http://i72.photobucket.com/ albums/i165/ckii96/Greece/Greece_019_Ancient_Agora.jpg? _sm_au_=iVVQMKK2MbV1ScNH [Accessed: 8 May 2013]. • Johnson, S. (2004) Religions of the ancient world. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap press of Harvard University press. • Metmuseum.org (1921) Attributed to the Sabouroff Painter: Lekythos (oil flask) (21.88.17) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [online] Available at: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/21.88.17 [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Metmuseum.org (1956) Attributed to the Berlin Painter: Amphora (56.171.38) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [online] Available at: http:// www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/56.171.38 [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Metmuseum.org (1914) Attributed to the Euphiletos Painter: Panathenaic prize amphora (14.130.12) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [online] Available at: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/14.130.12 [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Metmuseum.org (1963) Attributed to the Andokides Painter : Amphora (63.11.6) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [online] Available at: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/63.11.6 [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Metmuseum.org (1954) Funerary plaque [Greek, Attic] (54.11.5) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [online] Available at: http:// www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/54.11.5 [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Mikalson, J. (2005) Ancient Greek religion. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.. • Regula, D. (n.d.) The Twelve Olympian Gods and Goddesses of Greek Mythology. [online] Available at: http://gogreece.about.com/cs/mythology/a/olympiangods.htm [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Religionfacts.com (2003) Great Dionysia Festival - ReligionFacts. [online] Available at: http://www.religionfacts.com/greco-roman/festivals/dionysia.htm [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Smith, A. (2003) Athenian Political Art from the fifth and fourth centuries: Images of Tribal (Eponymous) Heroes. [e-book] p.Single page. http://www.stoa.org/projects/demos/ eponymous_heroes.pdf [Accessed: 12 May 2013]. • The Art of Manliness (2012) A Primer on Greek Mythology: Part I — The Gods and Goddesses. [online] Available at: http://www.artofmanliness.com/2012/08/23/a-primeron-greek-mythology-part-i-the-gods-and-goddesses/ [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Theoi.com (2000) Ancient Greek Art: Zeus. [online] Available at: http://www.theoi.com/ Gallery/K1.1.html [Accessed: 22 May 2013]. • Unmuseum.org (2000) The Seven Wonders - Statue of Zeus at Olympia. [online] Available at: http://www.unmuseum.org/ztemp.htm [Accessed: 7 May 2013]. • Dillon, M. and Garland, L. (2010) Ancient Greece. London: Routledge. [Accessed: 13 April 2013]. • En.wikipedia.org (2013) File:Peplos scene BM EastV cropped.JPG - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Peplos_scene_BM_EastV_cropped.JPG [Accessed: 22 May 2013].
Tara Heaslip
Wednesday, 19 June 2013 6:12:56 PM Australian Eastern Standard Time
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Pericles and Athens Essay
  • Religion, Death and Burial in Spartan Society Essay
  • Essay on religion
  • Pericles and His Influence on Athens Essay
  • Religion Essay
  • Essay about Religion
  • Essay on Death
  • Classical Athens and Pericles Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free