“Atheism is defined as the denial of God’s existence, the gradual exclusion of God from all aspects of culture, and the establishment of a materialistic lifestyle” (Hill, 16). Most of us are familiar with the atheism that had its roots in the Enlightenment and fully grew out in the nineteenth century. “In the ancient times atheism seems to refer more to heretical views of God than to the denial of God’s existence. The atheist was the one who disagreed with the conventional wisdom about the divinity. Such a position was often seen as worthy of condemnation and was even punishable by death” (Hill, 16). In the contemporary era there are many forms of atheism. The first form of atheism is atheism of the academy. “This form of atheism is common among secular intellectuals who accept only those realities that can be brought before the bar of reason for critical judgment” (Hill, 23). On the other hand, the ancient world was about natural and historical events that resulted of a higher divine will. The second form of atheism is materialistic atheism. “This form of atheism is common among those whose ultimate values are found in consumer goods, investments, and pleasure” (Hill, 23). Another form of atheism that is similar to this is the atheism of the marketplace. “This form of atheism appears among those in industry and corporate life, who absolutize profit and success” (Hill, 23). The last form of atheism is the atheism of indifference. “This form of atheism does not see the relevance of God to any events, realities, or the carrying on of everyday life” (Hill, 39). This form of atheism develops and drives towards personal autonomy and individualism. On the other hand, ancient atheism was about God being a part of the universe, or history or personal life. God was related to the natural and historical events that occurred.
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