Assumptions and Fallacies

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Associate Level Material

Appendix D

Assumptions and Fallacies

Write a 150- to 200-word response to each of the following questions:

• What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?
• What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?

Cite and reference any sourced material consistent with Associate Level Writing Style Handbook guidelines.

According to our text The Art of Thinking Ch. 10 assumptions is to take something for granted, to expect things will be a certain way because they have been that way in the past or because you want them to be that way. Assuming can interfere with our critical thinking because we assume things might or should be one way, and we perceive it as such. For example; in my personal experience because I might do something a certain way or believe something is a certain way that everyone does or believes the same as me. For me to avoid assumptions in my thinking, to I would have to look at the topic as a whole and evaluate it, and look at other ideas as well. I have to remember everyone is an individual and does things differently then I. I would have to try to refine my thinking to improve my ideas, to make my creative thinking more effective. In our text it says when we refine our thinking we are to find flaws and complications, the emphasis is not negative but positive, and that our aim is to improve our thinking.

Fallacy derives from two Latin words; fallax (deceptive) and fallere (deceive). Fallacies are stratagems for gaining influence, advantage, and power (over the sheep of society). (The thinker guide to fallacies, by Dr. R. Paul and Dr. L. Elder). Fallacies are used in written and orally by national and international news, by governments, by politicians these types of media write speeches, news

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