1.1 WHAT IS STATISTICS?
The word statistics derives from classical Latin roots, status which means state.
Statistics has become the universal language of the sciences.
As potential users of statistics, we need to master both the “science” and the “art” of using statistical methodology correctly.
These method include:
Carefully defining the situation
Accurately summarizing the data
Deriving and communicating meaningful conclusions
Nowadays statistics is used in almost all fields of human effort such as:
Education Agricultural Businesses Health
A statistician may keeps records of the number of hits a baseball player gets in a season.
Financial advisor uses some statistic information to make reliable predictions in investment.
Public Health An administrator would be concerned with the number of residents who contract a new strain of flu virus during a certain year.
1.2 TWO ASPECTS IN STATISTICS
Statistics has Two Aspects:
1. Theoretical / Mathematical Statistics
Deals with the development, derivation and proof of statistical theorems, formulas, rules and laws.
2. Applied Statistics
Involves the applications of those theorems, formulas, rules and laws to solve real world problems.
Applied Statistics can be divided into two main areas, depending on how data are used. The two main areas are:
Determine which of the following statements is descriptive in nature and which is inferential.
a. Of all U.S kindergarten teachers, 32% say that “knowing the alphabet” is an essential skill.
b. Of the 800 U.S kindergarten teachers polled, 32% say that “knowing the alphabet” is an essential skill.
Why do we have to study statistics?
To read and understand various statistical