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Assignment of Applied Linguistics

By warda105 Apr 19, 2013 1885 Words

Silent Way vs. Suggestopedia

Introduction:
Teaching is that profession where the success of the teachers depends on the ability of the students. As we know that every good teacher knows that all students do not learn in the same way every student learns at different speed and reacts differently. So, teacher should be focused on, that every student gets a chance to learn and for that, teacher should be creative in using different kinds of teaching method. They have to choose a suitable method to convey the knowledge because they will find different situation and different students in the class. Generally, students would not be able to believe that they could be successful in learning language. This lack of motivation has made students do not have confidence to speak in the target language because they do not want to make any mistake. Moreover, they find difficulties to recollect the previous lesson, such us memorizing the new vocabularies. This situation encourages teacher to be creative and to use an effective method on teaching. In addition, students have different type of learning style. They learn through their own learning styles which are visual, auditory style. Those who are visual learn trough seeing and they need to see the teacher’s body language and learn best from visual displays. Then, those who are auditory learn through listening and they learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through, and listening to what others have to say Teacher should choose appropriate method of teaching different for types of students, to motivate students, and to increase students memorizing ability. Suggestopedia and Silent Way is one of those methods that can be used by teachers.

Silent Way Method:
The Silent Way is the name of a method of language teaching devised by Caleb Gattegno. The very name Silent Way highlights the fact that it is based on the idea that the teacher should be silent as much as possible in the classroom but the learner should be encouraged to produce as much language as possible. To let the teacher concentrate on what the students say and how they are saying it, drawing their attention to the differences in pronunciation and the flow of words. The significance of this method is that the learner eventually discovers what ability he has, which he has not yet had an opportunity to discover. The three basic tenets of the approach are

Learning make possible if the learner discover rather than remembers or repeats In it the teacher and the learner work cooperatively to reach the educational desired goals. The learner is not a bench bound listener but an active contributor to the learning process. Learning is helped by physical objects

The Silent Way uses colorful charts and rods (cuisinere rods) which are of varying length. They are used to introduce vocabulary (colors, numbers, adjectives, verbs) and syntax (tense, comparatives, plurals, word order). For example: teacher has introduced the idea of pronouns as in “Give me a green rod”. The class will then use this structure until it is clearly absorbed, using all the other colors. One member of the class would now like to ask another to pass a rod to a third student but she does not know the word “her”, only that it cannot be “me”. At this point the teacher would interfere and supply the new item: “Give her the green rod” and the learner will continue until the next new item is needed (probably “him”). Problem-solving is central to learning.

This can be summarized by Benjamin Franklin’s words:
“Tell me and I forget
Teach me and I remember
Involve me and I learn”
A good silent way learner is a good problem solver. The teacher’s role exist in only in giving minimum repetitions and correction, remaining silent most of the times, leaving the learner struggling to solve problems about the language and get a grasp of its mechanism.

Suggestopedia Method:
The term 'Suggestopedia', derived from suggestion and pedagogy. This term is developed in the 1970’s by Bulgarian psychologist and educator, George Lazanov. Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understanding of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively. Lazanov argued that learners have difficulties in acquiring English as the second language because they do no want to make any mistake. When the learners are in this situation, their heart and blood pressure raise. He believes that there is a mental block in the learners’ brain. This filter blocks the input, so the learners have difficulties to acquire language caused by their fear. Music was central to his method. Music helps the students to reach a certain state of relaxation, in which the interest is increased. Moreover, it involves emotional meaning in given the lesson which help students better in memorizing. There are two types of suggestions first one is direct and second is indirect suggestion. The students learn English not only from direct instruction but also from indirect instruction. DIRECT: Direct suggestions are directed to conscious processes i.e. orally by the teacher, and/or by text materials. INDIRECT: Indirect suggestion is largely unconsciously perceived. In the teaching learning process, students who make mistakes are tolerated, for example in pronouncing the word. The stress is on the content not the structure. Grammar and vocabularies are presented and given treatment from the teachers, but not dwelt on. Homework is limited in this method Techniques:

Suggestopedia:
Classroom set-up, that is, the teacher provides as peaceful and relaxed an environment as possible. The classroom is provided with dim lights, soft music; soften armchairs, and walls decorated in order to make the students’ mind more relaxed. Silent Way

In the class, the teacher uses rods which consist of ten brightly colored wooden blocks of different length, a word chart, a phonic chart, drawings, Worksheets and books. Colored charts are used in the first phase a practice pronouncing sounds and then the rods are used to practice saying words and numerals in the second phase. In the third phase, the rods are used to practice speaking. The teacher says as few words as possible, but uses more gesture and charts. The constant visual exposure to these rods and charts is the vital part of the techniques. The principle of the methods is that teaching should be subordinate to learning and the teacher’s role is to help the students to acquire the language more than just learning it.

Advantages and Disadvantages of suggestopedia:
1-The first advantage of using suggestopedia for teaching English is that suggestopedia method use music during the process of learning. 2-The second advantage of using suggestopedia methods in teaching English is that suggestopedia methods have different class setting which make the students relax during the learning process. 3- Suggestopedia methods also decorate the class with posters or something which can make students’ mind relax, such as by putting flowers or aquarium in the corner of the class. By using poster, the students will always learn even when they just look around the classroom. 4-Beside the advantage, using music during the learning process also has disadvantages for some people who cannot study in the noisy class, it is difficult for them to divide their mind into two sides, to the music and to the lesson. 5-Another disadvantage is that suggestopedia method will be difficult to be practiced in the development country such as Indonesia. As we know that in Indonesia there are at least 30 – 40 students who fill in the one class. The teacher will be difficult to control them one by one. In conclusion, there are some advantages and disadvantages of using suggestopedia methods. As a good teacher we have to know what methods that appropriate for our students. Therefore before we choose a teaching method we have to consider its advantages and disadvantages. Suggestopedia is a good method for teaching, because the memorization can be done 25 times faster than the conventional method. But, there are also disadvantages of using it. So, we should be wise when we have to choose the method that we will use for our students.

Advantages and Disadvantages of silent way:
1-This method foster cooperative learning between individuals. 2-It embodies a new approach to education in general, a respect for the individual and an awareness of the individual’s extraordinary cognitive powers. 3-This method can be benefited by the teacher only in small groups of students. The teacher can gain ability in this method by trying. The teacher is expected to enhance the materials on his/her own. 4-For some teachers the strictness of the system (no repetitions by the teacher, no answers by the teacher etc.) may be meaningless. 5-Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations usually by rods. 6-How such a method would in the average classroom situation or how successfully it might be used at more advanced levels is a question mark left in our minds. 7-It would seem necessary for a teacher to gain a good deal of training and skill in order to apply the Silent Way to the teaching of a total grammar in all its complexity, if such a broad application is, in fact, possible 8-The Silent Way is often criticized of being a harsh method. The learner works in isolation and communication is lacking badly in a Silent Way classroom. 9-With minimum help on the part of the teacher, the Silent Way method may put the learning itself at risk. 10-The material (the rods and the charts) used in this method will certainly fail to introduce all aspects of language. Other materials will have to be introduced.

Principles and Characteristic of silent way:
1. Errors: Are indispensable and natural part of the learning process. Self-correction and peer-correction are emphasized. The teacher corrects the language only as a last resort. 2. Repetition: Consumes time and encourages the scattered mind to remain scattered. If the teacher avoids repetition strictly, this will force alertness and concentration on the part of the learners. By this way the efficiency in learning will be increased and the time will be saved for further learning. This principle is against ALM. 3. Student's native language: Native language can be used to give instructions when necessary. Also native language can be used during the feedback sessions (at least for beginner levels). If the native language is not very essential then it is avoided. 4. Evaluation: Although the teacher does not have to give a formal test, s/he assesses student learning all the time. One criterion of whether or not students have learned is their ability to transfer what they have been studying to new contexts. The principles of suggestopedia:

1. The first principle is that people are able to learn at rates many times greater that what we commonly assume to be limits of human performance. 2. The second principle is that learning is global; it involves the entire person. 3. The third principle is that people learn either consciously or unconsciously or both, either rationally or irrationally or both. Lazanov method is thought to be more concerned with irrational and unconscious processes. The concept of unconsciousness; comprises numerous unconscious forms such as associating and coding.

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